Poverty gap at $1.90 a day (2011 PPP) (%) - Country Ranking

Definition: Poverty gap at $1.90 a day (2011 PPP) is the mean shortfall in income or consumption from the poverty line $1.90 a day (counting the nonpoor as having zero shortfall), expressed as a percentage of the poverty line. This measure reflects the depth of poverty as well as its incidence. As a result of revisions in PPP exchange rates, poverty rates for individual countries cannot be compared with poverty rates reported in earlier editions.

Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For mor

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Dem. Rep. Congo 39.20 2012
1 Madagascar 39.20 2012
3 Malawi 33.30 2010
4 Central African Republic 33.10 2008
5 Burundi 32.40 2013
6 Lesotho 31.80 2010
7 Mozambique 31.40 2008
8 Guinea-Bissau 30.50 2010
9 Zambia 29.50 2015
10 Uzbekistan 25.30 2003
11 Rwanda 23.70 2013
12 Benin 22.40 2015
13 Nigeria 21.80 2009
14 Togo 19.90 2015
15 The Gambia 17.70 2003
16 Sierra Leone 16.70 2011
17 Suriname 16.60 1999
17 Swaziland 16.60 2009
19 Tanzania 15.40 2011
20 Chad 15.30 2011
21 Mali 15.20 2009
22 Congo 14.90 2011
23 Papua New Guinea 14.80 2009
24 Turkmenistan 14.50 1998
25 Niger 13.60 2014
26 St. Lucia 13.20 1995
27 Senegal 12.80 2011
28 Liberia 11.70 2014
28 Kenya 11.70 2005
30 Timor-Leste 11.20 2007
31 Burkina Faso 11.10 2014
32 Guinea 10.30 2012
32 Uganda 10.30 2012
34 Angola 9.60 2008
35 Côte d'Ivoire 9.00 2015
35 Ethiopia 9.00 2010
37 São Tomé and Principe 8.60 2010
38 Haiti 8.00 2012
39 Cameroon 7.70 2014
40 Djibouti 7.50 2013
41 Solomon Islands 6.80 2013
41 Venezuela 6.80 2006
43 Namibia 6.70 2009
44 Honduras 6.40 2015
45 Comoros 6.30 2013
46 Belize 6.20 1999
47 Botswana 5.80 2009
48 Zimbabwe 5.20 2011
48 Lao PDR 5.20 2012
50 Guyana 5.00 1998
51 South Africa 4.90 2011
52 Yemen 4.50 2014
53 India 4.30 2011
54 Ghana 4.00 2012
54 Sudan 4.00 2009
56 Bolivia 3.40 2015
57 Kiribati 3.30 2006
57 Bangladesh 3.30 2010
57 Vanuatu 3.30 2010
60 Nepal 3.00 2010
61 Guatemala 2.80 2014
62 Macedonia 2.50 2015
63 Georgia 2.20 2015
63 Colombia 2.20 2015
63 Ecuador 2.20 2015
66 Brazil 2.00 2015
67 Gabon 1.90 2005
67 Cabo Verde 1.90 2007
69 Philippines 1.60 2015
70 Myanmar 1.50 2015
71 Mauritania 1.40 2014
72 Indonesia 1.10 2016
73 Argentina 1.00 2014
73 Tajikistan 1.00 2015
75 Pakistan 0.90 2013
75 United States 0.90 2013
75 Nicaragua 0.90 2014
75 Trinidad and Tobago 0.90 1992
75 Italy 0.90 2014
80 Mexico 0.80 2014
80 Greece 0.80 2014
80 Peru 0.80 2015
80 Chile 0.80 2015
84 Paraguay 0.70 2015
84 Lithuania 0.70 2014
86 Croatia 0.60 2014
86 Costa Rica 0.60 2015
86 Panama 0.60 2015
86 Morocco 0.60 2006
86 Vietnam 0.60 2014
91 Spain 0.50 2014
91 Kyrgyz Republic 0.50 2015
91 Bulgaria 0.50 2014
91 Estonia 0.50 2014
91 Dominican Republic 0.50 2015
96 Bhutan 0.40 2012
96 Hungary 0.40 2014
96 El Salvador 0.40 2015
96 Iraq 0.40 2012
96 Jamaica 0.40 2004
96 Tunisia 0.40 2010
96 Seychelles 0.40 2013
96 Tuvalu 0.40 2010
96 Slovak Republic 0.40 2014
105 China 0.30 2013
105 Tonga 0.30 2009
105 Armenia 0.30 2015
105 Sri Lanka 0.30 2012
105 Australia 0.30 2010
105 Ireland 0.30 2014
105 Latvia 0.30 2014
105 Israel 0.30 2012
113 Fiji 0.20 2013
113 Sweden 0.20 2014
113 Canada 0.20 2013
113 Portugal 0.20 2014
113 Syrian Arab Republic 0.20 2004
113 Albania 0.20 2012
113 Azerbaijan 0.20 2008
113 Denmark 0.20 2014
113 Egypt 0.20 2015
113 Japan 0.20 2008
123 Korea 0.10 2012
123 Uruguay 0.10 2015
123 Austria 0.10 2014
123 United Kingdom 0.10 2014
123 Mauritius 0.10 2012
123 Algeria 0.10 2011
123 Iran 0.10 2014
123 Samoa 0.10 2008
131 Moldova 0.00 2015
131 Turkey 0.00 2014
131 Germany 0.00 2013
131 Mongolia 0.00 2014
131 Netherlands 0.00 2014
131 Norway 0.00 2014
131 Cyprus 0.00 2014
131 Montenegro 0.00 2014
131 Iceland 0.00 2014
131 France 0.00 2014
131 Finland 0.00 2014
131 Kazakhstan 0.00 2015
131 Luxembourg 0.00 2014
131 Malaysia 0.00 2009
131 Jordan 0.00 2010
131 Lebanon 0.00 2011
131 Belarus 0.00 2015
131 Serbia 0.00 2013
131 Slovenia 0.00 2014
131 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.00 2011
131 Switzerland 0.00 2013
131 Romania 0.00 2013
131 Thailand 0.00 2013
131 Belgium 0.00 2014
131 Poland 0.00 2014
131 Russia 0.00 2015
131 Czech Republic 0.00 2014
131 Ukraine 0.00 2015

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Development Relevance: The World Bank Group is committed to reducing extreme poverty to 3 percent or less, globally, by 2030. Monitoring poverty is important on the global development agenda as well as on the national development agenda of many countries. The World Bank produced its first global poverty estimates for developing countries for World Development Report 1990: Poverty (World Bank 1990) using household survey data for 22 countries (Ravallion, Datt, and van de Walle 1991). Since then there has been considerable expansion in the number of countries that field household income and expenditure surveys. The World Bank's Development Research Group maintains a database that is updated annually as new survey data become available (and thus may contain more recent data or revisions) and conducts a major reassessment of progress against poverty every year. PovcalNet is an interactive computational tool that allows users to replicate these internationally comparable $1.90, $3.20 and $5.50 a day global, regional and country-level poverty estimates and to compute poverty measures for custom country groupings and for different poverty lines. The Poverty and Equity Data portal provides access to the database and user-friendly dashboards with graphs and interactive maps that visualize trends in key poverty and inequality indicators for different regions and countries. The country dashboards display trends in poverty measures based on the national poverty lines alongside the internationally comparable estimates, produced from and consistent with PovcalNet.

Limitations and Exceptions: Despite progress in the last decade, the challenges of measuring poverty remain. The timeliness, frequency, quality, and comparability of household surveys need to increase substantially, particularly in the poorest countries. The availability and quality of poverty monitoring data remains low in small states, countries with fragile situations, and low-income countries and even some middle-income countries. The low frequency and lack of comparability of the data available in some countries create uncertainty over the magnitude of poverty reduction. Besides the frequency and timeliness of survey data, other data quality issues arise in measuring household living standards. The surveys ask detailed questions on sources of income and how it was spent, which must be carefully recorded by trained personnel. Income is generally more difficult to measure accurately, and consumption comes closer to the notion of living standards. And income can vary over time even if living standards do not. But consumption data are not always available: the latest estimates reported here use consumption data for about two-thirds of countries. However, even similar surveys may not be strictly comparable because of differences in timing or in the quality and training of enumerators. Comparisons of countries at different levels of development also pose a potential problem because of differences in the relative importance of the consumption of nonmarket goods. The local market value of all consumption in kind (including own production, particularly important in underdeveloped rural economies) should be included in total consumption expenditure but may not be. Most survey data now include valuations for consumption or income from own production, but valuation methods vary.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: International comparisons of poverty estimates entail both conceptual and practical problems. Countries have different definitions of poverty, and consistent comparisons across countries can be difficult. Local poverty lines tend to have higher purchasing power in rich countries, where more generous standards are used, than in poor countries. Since World Development Report 1990, the World Bank has aimed to apply a common standard in measuring extreme poverty, anchored to what poverty means in the world's poorest countries. The welfare of people living in different countries can be measured on a common scale by adjusting for differences in the purchasing power of currencies. The commonly used $1 a day standard, measured in 1985 international prices and adjusted to local currency using purchasing power parities (PPPs), was chosen for World Development Report 1990 because it was typical of the poverty lines in low-income countries at the time. As differences in the cost of living across the world evolve, the international poverty line has to be periodically updated using new PPP price data to reflect these changes. The last change was in October 2015, when we adopted $1.90 as the international poverty line using the 2011 PPP. Prior to that, the 2008 update set the international poverty line at $1.25 using the 2005 PPP. Poverty measures based on international poverty lines attempt to hold the real value of the poverty line constant across countries, as is done when making comparisons over time. The $3.20 poverty line is derived from typical national poverty lines in countries classified as Lower Middle Income. The $5.50 poverty line is derived from typical national poverty lines in countries classified as Upper Middle Income. Early editions of World Development Indicators used PPPs from the Penn World Tables to convert values in local currency to equivalent purchasing power measured in U.S dollars. Later editions used 1993, 2005, and 2011 consumption PPP estimates produced by the World Bank. The current extreme poverty line is set at $1.90 a day in 2011 PPP terms, which represents the mean of the poverty lines found in 15 of the poorest countries ranked by per capita consumption. The new poverty line maintains the same standard for extreme poverty - the poverty line typical of the poorest countries in the world - but updates it using the latest information on the cost of living in developing countries. As a result of revisions in PPP exchange rates, poverty rates for individual countries cannot be compared with poverty rates reported in earlier editions. The statistics reported here are based on consumption data or, when unavailable, on income surveys. Analysis of some 20 countries for which income and consumption expenditure data were both available from the same surveys found income to yield a higher mean than consumption but also higher inequality. When poverty measures based on consumption and income were compared, the two effects roughly cancelled each other out: there was no significant statistical difference.

Unit of Measure: %

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: The World Bank’s internationally comparable poverty monitoring database now draws on income or detailed consumption data from more than one thousand six hundred household surveys across 164 countries in six regions and 25 other high income countries (indu