Lifetime risk of maternal death (%) - Country Ranking

Definition: Life time risk of maternal death is the probability that a 15-year-old female will die eventually from a maternal cause assuming that current levels of fertility and mortality (including maternal mortality) do not change in the future, taking into account competing causes of death.

Source: WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, World Bank Group, and the United Nations Population Division. Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990 to 2015. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2015

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Sierra Leone 5.94 2015
2 Chad 5.52 2015
3 Somalia 4.64 2015
4 Nigeria 4.51 2015
5 Niger 4.37 2015
6 Burundi 4.27 2015
7 The Gambia 4.11 2015
8 Dem. Rep. Congo 4.09 2015
9 Mali 3.74 2015
10 Central African Republic 3.67 2015
11 Liberia 3.55 2015
12 Guinea 3.46 2015
13 Malawi 3.45 2015
14 Côte d'Ivoire 3.17 2015
15 Angola 3.08 2015
16 Cameroon 2.89 2015
17 Mauritania 2.74 2015
18 Guinea-Bissau 2.62 2015
19 Mozambique 2.53 2015
20 Kenya 2.35 2015
21 Eritrea 2.33 2015
22 Congo 2.22 2015
23 Tanzania 2.20 2015
24 Uganda 2.13 2015
25 Burkina Faso 2.07 2015
26 Benin 1.97 2015
27 Zimbabwe 1.94 2015
28 Afghanistan 1.93 2015
29 Togo 1.72 2015
30 Madagascar 1.67 2015
31 Yemen 1.66 2015
32 Equatorial Guinea 1.64 2015
33 Senegal 1.63 2015
34 Lesotho 1.63 2015
35 Ethiopia 1.56 2015
36 Comoros 1.52 2015
37 Sudan 1.39 2015
38 Ghana 1.34 2015
39 Swaziland 1.31 2015
40 Zambia 1.26 2015
41 Timor-Leste 1.22 2015
42 Rwanda 1.18 2015
43 Gabon 1.17 2015
44 Haiti 1.11 2015
45 Namibia 0.98 2015
46 Papua New Guinea 0.81 2015
47 São Tomé and Principe 0.74 2015
48 Djibouti 0.70 2015
49 Pakistan 0.69 2015
50 Lao PDR 0.67 2015
51 Nepal 0.65 2015
52 Bolivia 0.64 2015
53 Guyana 0.59 2015
54 Cambodia 0.47 2015
55 Solomon Islands 0.46 2015
56 India 0.45 2015
57 Tonga 0.43 2015
58 Bangladesh 0.42 2015
59 Algeria 0.42 2015
60 Myanmar 0.38 2015
61 Botswana 0.37 2015
62 Suriname 0.37 2015
63 Nicaragua 0.37 2015
64 Paraguay 0.37 2015
65 Philippines 0.35 2015
66 Honduras 0.34 2015
67 Kiribati 0.34 2015
68 South Africa 0.33 2015
69 Bhutan 0.32 2015
70 Indonesia 0.31 2015
71 Morocco 0.31 2015
72 Guatemala 0.31 2015
73 Vanuatu 0.28 2015
74 Kyrgyz Republic 0.26 2015
75 Dominican Republic 0.25 2015
76 Iraq 0.24 2015
77 Venezuela 0.24 2015
78 Panama 0.24 2015
79 Syrian Arab Republic 0.23 2015
80 Jordan 0.20 2015
81 Samoa 0.20 2015
82 Jamaica 0.19 2015
83 Peru 0.17 2015
84 Ecuador 0.17 2015
85 Dem. People's Rep. Korea 0.15 2015
86 The Bahamas 0.15 2015
87 Tunisia 0.14 2015
88 Tajikistan 0.13 2015
89 Argentina 0.13 2015
90 Colombia 0.13 2015
91 Mongolia 0.13 2015
92 Egypt 0.12 2015
93 Trinidad and Tobago 0.12 2015
94 Vietnam 0.11 2015
95 El Salvador 0.11 2015
96 Cabo Verde 0.11 2015
97 Turkmenistan 0.11 2015
98 Uzbekistan 0.10 2015
99 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 0.09 2015
100 St. Lucia 0.09 2015
101 Mexico 0.09 2015
102 Malaysia 0.08 2015
103 Fiji 0.08 2015
104 Brazil 0.08 2015
105 Belize 0.08 2015
106 Mauritius 0.08 2015
107 Georgia 0.07 2015
108 Grenada 0.07 2015
109 Sri Lanka 0.06 2015
110 Azerbaijan 0.06 2015
111 Cuba 0.06 2015
112 Oman 0.05 2015
113 Albania 0.05 2015
114 Iran 0.05 2015
115 Costa Rica 0.05 2015
116 Barbados 0.05 2015
117 Russia 0.04 2015
118 Brunei 0.04 2015
119 Romania 0.04 2015
120 Armenia 0.04 2015
121 China 0.04 2015
122 Chile 0.04 2015
123 Ukraine 0.04 2015
124 Turkey 0.03 2015
125 Kazakhstan 0.03 2015
126 Bahrain 0.03 2015
127 Saudi Arabia 0.03 2015
128 Moldova 0.03 2015
129 Uruguay 0.03 2015
130 Latvia 0.03 2015
131 Qatar 0.03 2015
132 Thailand 0.03 2015
133 Lebanon 0.03 2015
134 United States 0.03 2015
135 Serbia 0.03 2015
136 Libya 0.02 2015
137 Puerto Rico 0.02 2015
138 Hungary 0.02 2015
139 New Zealand 0.02 2015
140 United Kingdom 0.02 2015
141 France 0.02 2015
142 Ireland 0.02 2015
143 Israel 0.02 2015
144 Bulgaria 0.02 2015
145 Lithuania 0.02 2015
146 Estonia 0.02 2015
147 Luxembourg 0.02 2015
148 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.01 2015
149 Slovenia 0.01 2015
150 Korea 0.01 2015
151 Croatia 0.01 2015
152 United Arab Emirates 0.01 2015
153 Belgium 0.01 2015
154 Portugal 0.01 2015
155 Singapore 0.01 2015
156 Malta 0.01 2015
157 Montenegro 0.01 2015
158 Macedonia 0.01 2015
159 Australia 0.01 2015
160 Netherlands 0.01 2015
161 Canada 0.01 2015
162 Cyprus 0.01 2015
163 Denmark 0.01 2015
164 Kuwait 0.01 2015
165 Norway 0.01 2015
166 Germany 0.01 2015
167 Slovak Republic 0.01 2015
168 Switzerland 0.01 2015
169 Sweden 0.01 2015
170 Japan 0.01 2015
171 Belarus 0.01 2015
172 Iceland 0.01 2015
173 Spain 0.01 2015
174 Czech Republic 0.01 2015
175 Austria 0.01 2015
176 Italy 0.01 2015
177 Finland 0.00 2015
178 Poland 0.00 2015
179 Greece 0.00 2015

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Limitations and Exceptions: The methodology differs from that used for previous estimates, so data should not be compared historically. Maternal mortality ratios are generally of unknown reliability, as are many other cause-specific mortality indicators. The probability cannot be assumed to provide an exact estimate of risk of maternal death.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Reproductive health is a state of physical and mental well-being in relation to the reproductive system and its functions and processes. Means of achieving reproductive health include education and services during pregnancy and childbirth, safe and effective contraception, and prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth are the leading cause of death and disability among women of reproductive age in developing countries. Maternal mortality is generally of unknown reliability, as are many other cause-specific mortality indicators. Household surveys such as Demographic and Health Surveys attempt to measure maternal mortality by asking respondents about survivorship of sisters. The main disadvantage of this method is that the estimates of maternal mortality that it produces pertain to any time within the past few years before the survey, making them unsuitable for monitoring recent changes or observing the impact of interventions. In addition, measurement of maternal mortality is subject to many types of errors. Even in high-income countries with reliable vital registration systems, misclassification of maternal deaths has been found to lead to serious underestimation. The estimates are based on an exercise by the Maternal Mortality Estimation Inter-Agency Group (MMEIG) which consists of World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Bank, and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and include country-level time series data. For countries without complete registration data but with other types of data and for countries with no data, maternal mortality is estimated with a regression model using available national maternal mortality data and socioeconomic information. In countries with a high risk of maternal death, many girls die before reaching reproductive age. Lifetime risk of maternal mortality refers to the probability that a 15-year-old girl will eventually die due to a maternal cause.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual