Adjusted savings: particulate emission damage (% of GNI) - Country Ranking

Definition: Particulate emissions damage is the damage due to exposure of a country's population to ambient concentrations of particulates measuring less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5), ambient ozone pollution, and indoor concentrations of PM2.5 in households cooking with solid fuels. Damages are calculated as foregone labor income due to premature death. Estimates of health impacts from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Data for other years have been extrapolated from trends in mortality rates.

Source: World Bank staff estimates based on sources and methods described in "The Changing Wealth of Nations 2018: Building a Sustainable Future" (Lange et al 2018).

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Chad 3.08 2017
2 Afghanistan 1.89 2017
3 Yemen 1.83 2017
4 Nigeria 1.72 2017
5 Eritrea 1.67 2011
6 Dem. Rep. Congo 1.66 2017
7 Sierra Leone 1.64 2017
8 Burkina Faso 1.60 2017
9 Mali 1.55 2017
10 Madagascar 1.48 2017
11 Niger 1.40 2017
12 Haiti 1.38 2017
13 Sudan 1.29 2017
14 Solomon Islands 1.29 2017
15 Timor-Leste 1.27 2017
16 Burundi 1.26 2017
17 Vanuatu 1.22 2017
18 Liberia 1.17 2017
19 The Gambia 1.16 2017
20 Benin 1.05 2017
21 Lesotho 1.04 2017
22 Guinea-Bissau 1.03 2017
23 São Tomé and Principe 0.98 2017
24 Togo 0.91 2017
25 Malawi 0.86 2017
26 Rwanda 0.85 2017
27 Côte d'Ivoire 0.85 2017
28 Zimbabwe 0.85 2017
29 Guinea 0.83 2017
30 Comoros 0.81 2017
31 Papua New Guinea 0.80 2017
32 India 0.79 2017
33 Pakistan 0.79 2017
34 Cameroon 0.77 2017
35 Nepal 0.75 2017
36 Bhutan 0.73 2017
37 Congo 0.71 2017
38 Zambia 0.70 2017
39 Uganda 0.67 2017
40 Ghana 0.65 2017
41 Eswatini 0.65 2017
42 Egypt 0.65 2017
43 Lao PDR 0.64 2017
44 Tanzania 0.61 2017
45 Mozambique 0.60 2017
46 Angola 0.59 2017
47 Senegal 0.58 2017
48 Central African Republic 0.58 2017
49 Tajikistan 0.56 2017
50 Cambodia 0.56 2017
51 Fiji 0.55 2017
52 Mauritania 0.55 2017
53 Myanmar 0.54 2017
54 Bangladesh 0.53 2017
55 Georgia 0.52 2017
56 Libya 0.49 2017
57 Kenya 0.48 2017
58 Guatemala 0.47 2017
59 Armenia 0.46 2017
60 Ethiopia 0.45 2017
61 Equatorial Guinea 0.44 2017
62 Djibouti 0.42 2017
63 Morocco 0.42 2017
64 Samoa 0.41 2017
65 Namibia 0.41 2017
66 Mongolia 0.40 2017
67 Uzbekistan 0.40 2017
68 Tonga 0.38 2017
69 Indonesia 0.37 2017
70 Honduras 0.36 2017
71 Philippines 0.33 2017
72 Dominican Republic 0.32 2017
73 El Salvador 0.31 2017
74 Serbia 0.31 2017
75 Sri Lanka 0.31 2017
76 South Africa 0.31 2017
77 Lebanon 0.30 2017
78 Guyana 0.29 2017
79 Kyrgyz Republic 0.29 2017
80 Turkmenistan 0.29 2017
81 China 0.28 2017
82 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 0.26 2017
83 Belize 0.26 2017
84 Ukraine 0.26 2017
85 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.25 2017
86 Jamaica 0.25 2017
87 Moldova 0.25 2017
88 Barbados 0.25 2017
89 North Macedonia 0.25 2017
90 Iraq 0.24 2017
91 Bolivia 0.24 2017
92 Malaysia 0.23 2017
93 Bulgaria 0.23 2017
94 Cabo Verde 0.22 2017
95 Russia 0.22 2017
96 Paraguay 0.22 2017
97 Tunisia 0.21 2017
98 Nicaragua 0.21 2017
99 Suriname 0.21 2017
100 St. Lucia 0.20 2017
101 Gabon 0.20 2017
102 Vietnam 0.20 2017
103 Turkey 0.18 2017
104 Mauritius 0.18 2017
105 Jordan 0.17 2017
106 Lithuania 0.17 2009
107 Mexico 0.17 2017
108 Thailand 0.17 2017
109 Venezuela 0.17 2014
110 Belarus 0.16 2017
111 Botswana 0.16 2017
112 Saudi Arabia 0.16 2017
113 Trinidad and Tobago 0.16 2017
114 Ecuador 0.16 2017
115 Hungary 0.16 2017
116 Albania 0.15 2017
117 Latvia 0.15 2017
118 Brazil 0.15 2017
119 Azerbaijan 0.15 2017
120 Romania 0.14 2017
121 Kazakhstan 0.14 2017
122 The Bahamas 0.14 2017
123 Montenegro 0.14 2017
124 Poland 0.14 2017
125 Iran 0.12 2017
126 Cuba 0.12 2015
127 Algeria 0.12 2017
128 United States 0.12 2017
129 Argentina 0.11 2017
130 Peru 0.11 2017
131 Colombia 0.11 2017
132 Chile 0.11 2017
133 Croatia 0.11 2017
134 Bahrain 0.11 2017
135 Costa Rica 0.10 2017
136 Kuwait 0.10 2017
137 United Arab Emirates 0.10 2017
138 Slovak Republic 0.10 2017
139 Puerto Rico 0.10 2016
140 Korea 0.10 2017
141 Greece 0.10 2017
142 Oman 0.09 2017
143 Panama 0.09 2017
144 Czech Republic 0.09 2017
145 Israel 0.08 2017
146 Uruguay 0.08 2017
147 Germany 0.08 2017
148 Japan 0.08 2017
149 Singapore 0.08 2017
150 Cyprus 0.08 2017
151 Estonia 0.07 2017
152 United Kingdom 0.07 2017
153 Malta 0.06 2017
154 Portugal 0.06 2017
155 Netherlands 0.06 2017
156 Denmark 0.06 2017
157 Italy 0.06 2017
158 Slovenia 0.06 2017
159 Belgium 0.05 2017
160 Canada 0.05 2017
161 Qatar 0.05 2017
162 Austria 0.05 2017
163 Iceland 0.05 2017
164 Brunei 0.05 2017
165 Switzerland 0.05 2017
166 New Zealand 0.04 2017
167 Spain 0.04 2017
168 Ireland 0.04 2017
169 Luxembourg 0.04 2017
170 France 0.04 2017
171 Australia 0.04 2017
172 Finland 0.03 2017
173 Norway 0.03 2017
174 Sweden 0.02 2017

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Development Relevance: Air pollution places a major burden on world health. In many places, including cities but also nearby rural areas, exposure to air pollution exposure is the main environmental threat to health. Long-term exposure to high levels of fine particulates in the air contributes to a range of health effects, including respiratory diseases, lung cancer, and heart disease, resulting in 3.2 million deaths annually according to the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. Not only does exposure to air pollution affect the health of the world’s people, it also carries huge economic costs and represents a drag on development, particularly for low and middle income countries and vulnerable segments of the population such as children and the elderly.

Limitations and Exceptions: Labor productivity losses, as calculated within the framework of adjusted net savings, represent only part of the economic costs of air pollution and should be interpreted as a lower-end estimate.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Within the national accounting framework, air pollution damages are estimated following a human capital approach. Damages from premature mortality are calculated as the present value of lost income during working age, 15-64. Premature mortality among children is valued by adjusting for years until working age and discounting more heavily into the future. Estimates are for both urban and rural areas. Exposure to household air pollution is proxied by the number of households in each country cooking with solid fuels.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual