Gross capital formation (current US$) - Country Ranking

Definition: Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

Source: World Bank national accounts data, and OECD National Accounts data files.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 China 5,995,270,000,000.00 2018
2 United States 4,315,460,000,000.00 2018
3 Japan 1,213,680,000,000.00 2018
4 Germany 860,530,000,000.00 2018
5 India 851,175,000,000.00 2018
6 France 651,481,000,000.00 2018
7 United Kingdom 493,070,000,000.00 2018
8 Korea 488,785,000,000.00 2018
9 Canada 396,013,000,000.00 2018
10 Italy 378,450,000,000.00 2018
11 Russia 376,766,000,000.00 2018
12 Indonesia 360,277,000,000.00 2018
13 Australia 351,176,000,000.00 2018
14 Spain 289,132,000,000.00 2018
15 Brazil 288,193,000,000.00 2018
16 Mexico 277,679,000,000.00 2018
17 Turkey 228,159,000,000.00 2018
18 Saudi Arabia 190,577,000,000.00 2018
19 Netherlands 188,746,000,000.00 2018
20 Switzerland 160,080,000,000.00 2018
21 Iran 157,715,000,000.00 2017
22 Sweden 149,150,000,000.00 2018
23 Belgium 138,375,000,000.00 2018
24 Thailand 126,316,000,000.00 2018
25 Poland 121,249,000,000.00 2018
26 Venezuela 119,674,000,000.00 2014
27 Norway 118,709,000,000.00 2018
28 Austria 114,324,000,000.00 2018
29 Argentina 108,995,000,000.00 2018
30 Singapore 96,902,950,000.00 2018
31 United Arab Emirates 92,946,500,000.00 2018
32 Ireland 90,939,360,000.00 2018
33 Philippines 89,142,170,000.00 2018
34 Bangladesh 85,591,490,000.00 2018
35 Malaysia 84,674,730,000.00 2018
36 Qatar 82,011,270,000.00 2018
37 Algeria 81,855,980,000.00 2018
38 Denmark 81,650,150,000.00 2018
39 Israel 80,802,620,000.00 2018
40 Hong Kong SAR, China 78,784,850,000.00 2018
41 Nigeria 78,698,430,000.00 2018
42 Colombia 70,208,050,000.00 2018
43 Finland 68,929,340,000.00 2018
44 Chile 67,724,680,000.00 2018
45 South Africa 66,072,440,000.00 2018
46 Vietnam 65,062,680,000.00 2018
47 Czech Republic 64,170,200,000.00 2018
48 Romania 57,879,260,000.00 2018
49 Pakistan 52,659,260,000.00 2018
50 New Zealand 48,917,200,000.00 2018
51 Peru 47,299,640,000.00 2018
52 Portugal 43,644,940,000.00 2018
53 Hungary 42,984,700,000.00 2018
54 Kazakhstan 42,748,120,000.00 2018
55 Egypt 41,789,410,000.00 2018
56 Morocco 39,528,030,000.00 2018
57 Kuwait 35,450,660,000.00 2018
58 Angola 29,468,850,000.00 2017
59 Iraq 28,864,170,000.00 2018
60 Ethiopia 28,788,890,000.00 2018
61 Greece 28,588,120,000.00 2018
62 Ecuador 28,132,110,000.00 2018
63 Libya 25,993,790,000.00 2008
64 Panama 25,977,080,000.00 2017
65 Sri Lanka 25,411,630,000.00 2018
66 Slovak Republic 24,813,510,000.00 2018
67 Ukraine 24,556,640,000.00 2018
68 Dominican Republic 22,069,590,000.00 2018
69 Myanmar 21,854,220,000.00 2017
70 Uzbekistan 20,288,620,000.00 2018
71 Oman 18,387,000,000.00 2018
72 Tanzania 18,138,160,000.00 2017
73 Turkmenistan 16,597,510,000.00 2012
74 Belarus 16,407,340,000.00 2018
75 Kenya 16,212,700,000.00 2018
76 Nepal 16,023,500,000.00 2018
77 Croatia 14,099,110,000.00 2018
78 Bulgaria 14,078,520,000.00 2018
79 Luxembourg 12,449,000,000.00 2018
80 Dem. Rep. Congo 12,199,820,000.00 2018
81 Bahrain 12,042,550,000.00 2018
82 Cuba 12,040,000,000.00 2018
83 Serbia 11,471,090,000.00 2018
84 Costa Rica 11,412,040,000.00 2018
85 Slovenia 11,390,960,000.00 2018
86 Syrian Arab Republic 11,232,240,000.00 2007
87 Lebanon 11,045,850,000.00 2018
88 Lithuania 10,578,930,000.00 2018
89 Uruguay 9,862,736,000.00 2018
90 Ghana 9,744,478,000.00 2018
91 Guatemala 9,477,604,000.00 2018
92 Macao SAR, China 9,463,364,000.00 2018
93 Azerbaijan 9,423,294,000.00 2018
94 Paraguay 9,088,186,000.00 2018
95 Puerto Rico 8,922,200,000.00 2018
96 Cameroon 8,816,165,000.00 2018
97 Côte d'Ivoire 8,494,113,000.00 2018
98 Bolivia 8,297,786,000.00 2018
99 Latvia 8,086,158,000.00 2018
100 Estonia 8,057,376,000.00 2018
101 Zambia 8,006,022,000.00 2016
102 Sudan 7,872,602,000.00 2018
103 Jordan 7,787,324,000.00 2018
104 Tunisia 7,688,518,000.00 2017
105 Mozambique 7,215,235,000.00 2018
106 Senegal 6,929,661,000.00 2018
107 Uganda 6,863,137,000.00 2018
108 Honduras 6,116,481,000.00 2018
109 Iceland 5,852,438,000.00 2018
110 Cambodia 5,754,782,000.00 2018
111 Mongolia 5,630,666,000.00 2018
112 Brunei 5,571,546,000.00 2018
113 Botswana 5,493,177,000.00 2018
114 El Salvador 5,325,340,000.00 2018
115 Georgia 4,949,529,000.00 2018
116 Cyprus 4,776,165,000.00 2018
117 Lao PDR 4,584,861,000.00 2016
118 Bosnia and Herzegovina 4,215,568,000.00 2018
119 North Macedonia 4,180,275,000.00 2018
120 Zimbabwe 3,893,352,000.00 2018
121 Afghanistan 3,871,614,000.00 2017
122 Gabon 3,670,870,000.00 2018
123 Jamaica 3,667,087,000.00 2018
124 Burkina Faso 3,492,918,000.00 2018
125 Mali 3,480,920,000.00 2018
126 Niger 3,447,074,000.00 2018
127 Albania 3,262,669,000.00 2017
128 The Bahamas 3,046,000,000.00 2018
129 Nicaragua 3,010,122,000.00 2018
130 Moldova 2,931,940,000.00 2018
131 Kyrgyz Republic 2,862,912,000.00 2018
132 Haiti 2,801,710,000.00 2018
133 Armenia 2,784,454,000.00 2018
134 Malta 2,777,663,000.00 2018
135 Mauritius 2,719,129,000.00 2018
136 Madagascar 2,717,329,000.00 2018
137 Benin 2,668,774,000.00 2018
138 Mauritania 2,496,639,000.00 2018
139 Rwanda 2,316,135,000.00 2018
140 Chad 2,224,958,000.00 2018
141 Equatorial Guinea 2,076,841,000.00 2018
142 Guinea 2,064,438,000.00 2018
143 Congo 2,044,630,000.00 2018
144 Tajikistan 1,945,963,000.00 2017
145 Namibia 1,825,136,000.00 2018
146 Montenegro 1,756,647,000.00 2018
147 Suriname 1,581,555,000.00 2010
148 Guyana 1,452,766,000.00 2018
149 Djibouti 1,427,934,000.00 2018
150 Togo 1,358,260,000.00 2018
151 Bhutan 1,295,826,000.00 2017
152 Malawi 846,672,100.00 2017
153 Cabo Verde 799,335,900.00 2018
154 New Caledonia 794,203,300.00 1990
155 Papua New Guinea 785,482,900.00 2004
156 Greenland 663,160,900.00 2016
157 Eswatini 615,013,500.00 2018
158 Lesotho 603,736,400.00 2018
159 Barbados 579,309,300.00 2018
160 Central African Republic 574,987,900.00 2018
161 Timor-Leste 559,483,200.00 2017
162 Sierra Leone 553,771,600.00 2018
163 Seychelles 517,506,600.00 2018
164 Liberia 422,000,000.00 2018
165 St. Lucia 367,703,700.00 2016
166 Belize 354,772,100.00 2018
167 Burundi 337,203,800.00 2018
168 The Gambia 277,043,400.00 2018
169 Eritrea 260,733,700.00 2011
170 Vanuatu 215,397,500.00 2014
171 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 207,435,900.00 2017
172 Comoros 176,389,300.00 2018
173 Guinea-Bissau 158,838,200.00 2018
174 Tonga 157,662,000.00 2012
175 Somalia 142,141,900.00 1990
176 Palau 75,720,450.00 2018
177 Solomon Islands 66,666,670.00 2006
178 Kiribati 19,095,180.00 1992

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Limitations and Exceptions: Because policymakers have tended to focus on fostering the growth of output, and because data on production are easier to collect than data on spending, many countries generate their primary estimate of GDP using the production approach. Moreover, many countries do not estimate all the components of national expenditures but instead derive some of the main aggregates indirectly using GDP (based on the production approach) as the control total. Data on capital formation may be estimated from direct surveys of enterprises and administrative records or based on the commodity flow method using data from production, trade, and construction activities. The quality of data on government fixed capital formation depends on the quality of government accounting systems (which tend to be weak in developing countries). Measures of fixed capital formation by households and corporations - particularly capital outlays by small, unincorporated enterprises - are usually unreliable. Estimates of changes in inventories are rarely complete but usually include the most important activities or commodities. In some countries these estimates are derived as a composite residual along with household final consumption expenditure. According to national accounts conventions, adjustments should be made for appreciation of the value of inventory holdings due to price changes, but this is not always done. In highly inflationary economies this element can be substantial.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Gross domestic product (GDP) from the expenditure side is made up of household final consumption expenditure, general government final consumption expenditure, gross capital formation (private and public investment in fixed assets, changes in inventories, and net acquisitions of valuables), and net exports (exports minus imports) of goods and services. Such expenditures are recorded in purchaser prices and include net taxes on products.

Aggregation method: Gap-filled total

Periodicity: Annual