Firms with female top manager (% of firms) - Country Ranking

Definition: Firms with female top manager refers to the percentage of firms in the private sector who have females as top managers. Top manager refers to the highest ranking manager or CEO of the establishment. This person may be the owner if he/she works as the manager of the firm. The results are based on surveys of more than 100,000 private firms.

Source: World Bank, Enterprise Surveys (http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/).

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Thailand 64.80 2016
2 Cambodia 57.30 2016
3 Lao PDR 43.10 2018
4 Myanmar 41.10 2016
5 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 38.60 2010
6 Lesotho 36.20 2016
7 Mongolia 35.60 2013
8 The Bahamas 33.20 2010
9 Belarus 32.70 2013
10 Georgia 32.00 2013
11 Latvia 31.50 2013
12 Venezuela 31.10 2010
13 Philippines 29.90 2015
14 Kyrgyz Republic 28.80 2013
15 Madagascar 28.20 2013
16 El Salvador 28.00 2016
16 Honduras 28.00 2016
18 Namibia 27.40 2014
18 Eswatini 27.40 2016
20 Timor-Leste 27.00 2015
20 Nicaragua 27.00 2016
22 Malaysia 26.30 2015
22 Bolivia 26.30 2017
22 Bhutan 26.30 2015
25 Benin 25.90 2016
26 North Macedonia 25.70 2013
26 Moldova 25.70 2013
28 Belize 25.50 2010
29 Barbados 25.40 2010
30 Estonia 25.30 2013
31 Jamaica 24.10 2010
31 Bosnia and Herzegovina 24.10 2013
33 Grenada 24.00 2010
34 Bulgaria 23.90 2013
35 Zambia 23.80 2013
36 St. Lucia 23.70 2010
37 Dominica 23.60 2010
38 Panama 23.50 2010
39 Ecuador 22.90 2017
39 Cameroon 22.90 2016
41 Syrian Arab Republic 22.80 2009
42 Solomon Islands 22.60 2015
43 Vietnam 22.40 2015
44 Indonesia 22.10 2015
45 Dominican Republic 21.20 2016
46 St. Kitts and Nevis 21.10 2010
47 Lithuania 21.00 2013
48 Trinidad and Tobago 20.80 2010
49 Poland 20.60 2013
50 Hungary 20.40 2013
50 Liberia 20.40 2017
52 Romania 20.10 2013
52 Russia 20.10 2012
54 Peru 19.90 2017
55 Rwanda 19.70 2011
56 Paraguay 19.60 2017
57 Brazil 19.40 2009
58 Montenegro 19.30 2013
59 Armenia 19.10 2013
60 Colombia 18.90 2017
60 Kazakhstan 18.90 2013
62 Slovenia 18.80 2013
62 Ukraine 18.80 2013
64 Croatia 18.70 2013
65 Guatemala 18.50 2017
66 Kenya 18.10 2018
67 Guyana 17.70 2010
68 Antigua and Barbuda 17.50 2010
68 China 17.50 2012
70 Greece 17.20 2018
70 Congo 17.20 2009
70 Nepal 17.20 2013
73 Cabo Verde 16.70 2009
74 Botswana 16.50 2010
75 Burundi 16.30 2014
75 Zimbabwe 16.30 2016
77 Sierra Leone 15.90 2017
78 Mozambique 15.60 2018
79 Costa Rica 15.40 2010
79 Uganda 15.40 2013
81 Ghana 14.90 2013
82 Mexico 14.60 2010
83 Serbia 14.30 2013
83 Côte d'Ivoire 14.30 2016
85 Djibouti 14.20 2013
85 Malawi 14.20 2014
87 Senegal 14.10 2014
88 Tanzania 14.00 2013
88 Slovak Republic 14.00 2013
90 Nigeria 13.90 2014
91 Papua New Guinea 13.80 2015
92 Angola 13.50 2010
93 Uzbekistan 13.40 2013
94 Sweden 12.50 2014
95 Central African Republic 12.10 2011
96 Chad 12.00 2018
97 Suriname 11.90 2018
98 Albania 11.70 2013
99 Mali 11.60 2016
99 Czech Republic 11.60 2013
101 Gabon 11.50 2009
102 Togo 11.40 2016
103 Burkina Faso 11.30 2009
104 Dem. Rep. Congo 10.80 2013
105 Uruguay 10.60 2017
105 Niger 10.60 2017
107 Israel 10.10 2013
108 The Gambia 9.60 2018
108 Tajikistan 9.60 2013
110 India 8.90 2014
111 Sri Lanka 8.80 2011
112 Tunisia 8.50 2013
113 Argentina 8.00 2017
114 Eritrea 7.60 2009
115 Pakistan 6.00 2013
116 Guinea 5.80 2016
117 Turkey 5.40 2013
118 Egypt 4.90 2016
119 Bangladesh 4.80 2013
120 Afghanistan 4.70 2014
121 Chile 4.50 2010
121 Mauritania 4.50 2014
121 Ethiopia 4.50 2015
124 Lebanon 4.40 2013
125 Morocco 4.30 2013
126 Sudan 3.40 2014
127 Azerbaijan 2.40 2013
127 Jordan 2.40 2013
129 Iraq 2.30 2011
130 Yemen 1.60 2013

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Development Relevance: Firms evaluating investment options, governments interested in improving business conditions, and economists seeking to explain economic performance have all grappled with defining and measuring the business environment. The firm-level data from Enterprise Surveys provide a useful tool for benchmarking economies across a large number of indicators measured at the firm level. Firms with female top manager measures women's integration as decision makers. Benchmarking firms with female top manager is important to achieving gender equality promotion and empowerment of women. The gender topic provides information about women's entrepreneurship and economic participation in the labor force.

Limitations and Exceptions: The sampling methodology for Enterprise Surveys is stratified random sampling. In a simple random sample, all members of the population have the same probability of being selected and no weighting of the observations is necessary. In a stratified random sample, all population units are grouped within homogeneous groups and simple random samples are selected within each group. This method allows computing estimates for each of the strata with a specified level of precision while population estimates can also be estimated by properly weighting individual observations. The sampling weights take care of the varying probabilities of selection across different strata. Under certain conditions, estimates' precision under stratified random sampling will be higher than under simple random sampling (lower standard errors may result from the estimation procedure). The strata for Enterprise Surveys are firm size, business sector, and geographic region within a country. Firm size levels are 5-19 (small), 20-99 (medium), and 100+ employees (large-sized firms). Since in most economies, the majority of firms are small and medium-sized, Enterprise Surveys oversample large firms since larger firms tend to be engines of job creation. Sector breakdown is usually manufacturing, retail, and other services. For larger economies, specific manufacturing sub-sectors are selected as additional strata on the basis of employment, value-added, and total number of establishments figures. Geographic regions within a country are selected based on which cities/regions collectively contain the majority of economic activity. Ideally the survey sample frame is derived from the universe of eligible firms obtained from the country’s statistical office. Sometimes the master list of firms is obtained from other government agencies such as tax or business licensing authorities. In some cases, the list of firms is obtained from business associations or marketing databases. In a few cases, the sample frame is created via block enumeration, where the World Bank “manually” constructs a list of eligible firms after 1) partitioning a country’s cities of major economic activity into clusters and blocks, 2) randomly selecting a subset of blocks which will then be enumerated. In surveys conducted since 2005-06, survey documentation which explains the source of the sample frame and any special circumstances encountered during survey fieldwork are included with the collected datasets. Obtaining panel data, i.e. interviews with the same firms across multiple years, is a priority in current Enterprise Surveys. When conducting a new Enterprise Survey in a country where data was previously collected, maximal effort is expended to re-interview as many firms (from the prior survey) as possible. For these panel firms, sampling weights can be adjusted to take into account the resulting altered probabilities of inclusion in the sample frame.

Original Source Notes: All surveys were administered using the Enterprise Surveys methodology as outlined in the Methodology page which can be found from www.enterprisesurveys.org.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Firm-level surveys have been conducted since the 1990's by different units within the World Bank. Since 2005-06, most data collection efforts have been centralized within the Enterprise Analysis Unit. Surveys implemented by the Enterprise Analysis Unit follow the Global Methodology. Private contractors conduct the Enterprise Surveys on behalf of the World Bank. Due to sensitive survey questions addressing business-government relations and bribery-related topics, private contractors, rather than any government agency or an organization/institution associated with government, are hired by the World Bank to collect the data. Confidentiality of the survey respondents and the sensitive information they provide is necessary to ensure the greatest degree of survey participation, integrity and confidence in the quality of the data. Surveys are usually carried out in cooperation with business organizations and government agencies promoting job creation and economic growth, but confidentiality is never compromised. The Enterprise Survey is answered by business owners and top managers. Sometimes the survey respondent calls company accountants and human resource managers into the interview to answer questions in the sales and labor sections of the survey. Typically 1200-1800 interviews are conducted in larger economies, 360 interviews are conducted in medium-sized economies, and for smaller economies, 150 interviews take place. The manufacturing and services sectors are the primary business sectors of interest. This corresponds to firms classified with ISIC codes 15-37, 45, 50-52, 55, 60-64, and 72 (ISIC Rev.3.1). Formal (registered) companies with 5 or more employees are targeted for interview. Services firms include construction, retail, wholesale, hotels, restaurants, transport, storage, communications, and IT. Firms with 100% government/state ownership are not eligible to participate in an Enterprise Survey. Occasionally, for a few surveyed countries, other sectors are included in the companies surveyed such as education or health-related businesses. In each country, businesses in the cities/regions of major economic activity are interviewed. In some countries, other surveys, which depart from the usual Enterprise Survey methodology, are conducted. Examples include 1) Informal Surveys- surveys of informal (unregistered) enterprises, 2) Micro Surveys- surveys fielded to registered firms with less than five employees, and 3) Financial Crisis Assessment Surveys- short surveys administered by telephone to assess the effects of the global financial crisis of 2008-09. The Enterprise Surveys Unit uses two instruments: the Manufacturing Questionnaire and the Services Questionnaire. Although many questions overlap, some are only applicable to one type of business. For example, retail firms are not asked about production and nonproduction workers. The standard Enterprise Survey topics include firm characteristics, gender participation, access to finance, annual sales, costs of inputs/labor, workforce composition, bribery, licensing, infrastructure, trade, crime, competition, capacity utilization, land and permits, taxation, informality, business-government relations, innovation and technology, and performance measures. Over 90% of the questions objectively ascertain characteristics of a country’s business environment. The remaining questions assess the survey respondents’ opinions on what are the obstacles to firm growth and performance. The mode of data collection is face-to-face interviews.

Aggregation method: Unweighted average

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: Relevance to gender indicator: Women are vastly underrepresented in decision making positions at the top level in the private sector and this indicator monitors progress that has been made.