Losses due to theft and vandalism (% of annual sales for affected firms) - Country Ranking

Definition: Average losses as a result of theft, robbery, vandalism or arson that occurred on the establishment’s premises calculated as a percentage of annual sales. The value represents the average losses for all firms which reported losses (please see indicator IC.FRM.THEV.ZS).

Source: World Bank, Enterprise Surveys (http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/).

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Afghanistan 24.20 2014
2 Uzbekistan 18.30 2008
3 Lesotho 17.30 2016
4 Egypt 17.00 2016
5 Congo 16.90 2009
6 Jordan 15.80 2013
7 Timor-Leste 15.20 2015
8 Nigeria 13.60 2014
9 Namibia 12.50 2014
10 Angola 12.40 2010
11 Central African Republic 12.00 2011
12 Sierra Leone 11.70 2017
13 Mauritius 10.50 2009
13 Zambia 10.50 2013
15 Samoa 10.30 2009
16 Nepal 10.20 2013
17 Côte d'Ivoire 10.10 2016
18 Iraq 10.00 2011
19 Tunisia 9.80 2013
20 Guinea 9.60 2016
21 Liberia 9.30 2017
22 Indonesia 9.20 2015
23 Cameroon 8.90 2016
24 The Gambia 8.60 2006
25 Malaysia 8.50 2015
25 Malawi 8.50 2014
27 Dem. Rep. Congo 8.30 2013
28 Mauritania 7.80 2014
28 Ghana 7.80 2013
30 Georgia 7.50 2008
31 Togo 7.30 2016
32 Uganda 7.20 2013
32 Honduras 7.20 2016
34 Swaziland 7.10 2016
34 Bhutan 7.10 2015
36 Brazil 6.90 2009
37 Tanzania 6.80 2013
38 Dominican Republic 6.60 2016
39 Chad 6.50 2009
39 Pakistan 6.50 2013
41 Vanuatu 6.40 2009
42 Bolivia 5.90 2017
43 Panama 5.60 2010
44 Lebanon 5.40 2013
45 Senegal 5.30 2014
45 Madagascar 5.30 2013
47 Mozambique 5.00 2007
47 Kenya 5.00 2013
49 Yemen 4.90 2013
50 Papua New Guinea 4.80 2015
51 Turkey 4.70 2013
51 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 4.70 2010
53 Grenada 4.60 2010
53 Zimbabwe 4.60 2016
53 Rwanda 4.60 2011
56 Niger 4.50 2017
56 Tajikistan 4.50 2008
56 Sudan 4.50 2014
59 Djibouti 4.40 2013
60 Guatemala 4.30 2010
60 Lithuania 4.30 2013
62 Montenegro 4.10 2013
63 Mali 4.00 2016
63 Tonga 4.00 2009
63 Morocco 4.00 2013
66 Bangladesh 3.90 2013
66 Cabo Verde 3.90 2009
68 Ukraine 3.80 2013
68 Burundi 3.80 2014
70 Kazakhstan 3.70 2013
71 Fiji 3.60 2009
71 Mexico 3.60 2010
71 Venezuela 3.60 2010
71 Mongolia 3.60 2013
71 Armenia 3.60 2013
76 Gabon 3.50 2009
76 Vietnam 3.50 2015
76 Nicaragua 3.50 2016
79 Bulgaria 3.40 2013
79 Ethiopia 3.40 2015
79 Jamaica 3.40 2010
82 Guinea-Bissau 3.30 2006
82 Kyrgyz Republic 3.30 2013
82 El Salvador 3.30 2016
85 Cambodia 3.20 2016
86 Benin 3.10 2016
86 Burkina Faso 3.10 2009
86 Moldova 3.10 2013
86 Botswana 3.10 2010
90 Russia 3.00 2012
91 Romania 2.80 2013
91 Peru 2.80 2010
93 St. Kitts and Nevis 2.70 2010
93 India 2.70 2014
95 Antigua and Barbuda 2.60 2010
95 Solomon Islands 2.60 2015
97 Guyana 2.50 2010
97 Macedonia 2.50 2013
97 Bosnia and Herzegovina 2.50 2013
100 South Africa 2.40 2007
101 Paraguay 2.30 2017
101 Azerbaijan 2.30 2013
101 Ecuador 2.30 2017
104 Suriname 2.20 2010
104 Poland 2.20 2013
106 Argentina 2.00 2010
107 Belarus 1.90 2013
107 Lao PDR 1.90 2016
109 Sri Lanka 1.80 2011
109 Serbia 1.80 2013
109 Czech Republic 1.80 2013
112 Chile 1.70 2010
112 Croatia 1.70 2013
112 Trinidad and Tobago 1.70 2010
112 The Bahamas 1.70 2010
116 Slovak Republic 1.60 2013
116 Latvia 1.60 2013
116 St. Lucia 1.60 2010
119 Albania 1.40 2013
120 Philippines 1.30 2015
120 Costa Rica 1.30 2010
122 Israel 1.20 2013
123 Uruguay 1.10 2010
123 Myanmar 1.10 2016
123 Colombia 1.10 2010
126 Belize 1.00 2010
126 Estonia 1.00 2013
128 Hungary 0.80 2013
128 Thailand 0.80 2016
128 Sweden 0.80 2014
131 Slovenia 0.70 2013
132 Barbados 0.60 2010
133 China 0.50 2012

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Development Relevance: Firms evaluating investment options, governments interested in improving business conditions, and economists seeking to explain economic performance have all grappled with defining and measuring the business environment. The firm-level data from Enterprise Surveys provide a useful tool for benchmarking economies across a large number of indicators measured at the firm level. Crime imposes costs on firms when they are forced to divert resources from productive uses to cover security costs. Both foreign and domestic investors perceive crime as an indication of social instability, and crime drives up the cost of doing business. Also, commercial disputes between firms and their clients occur regularly in the course of doing business. Resolving these disputes can be challenging when legal institutions are weak or nonexistent. Crime, theft, and disorder may impose additional costs to businesses and society, and consume considerable resources.

Limitations and Exceptions: The sampling methodology for Enterprise Surveys is stratified random sampling. In a simple random sample, all members of the population have the same probability of being selected and no weighting of the observations is necessary. In a stratified random sample, all population units are grouped within homogeneous groups and simple random samples are selected within each group. This method allows computing estimates for each of the strata with a specified level of precision while population estimates can also be estimated by properly weighting individual observations. The sampling weights take care of the varying probabilities of selection across different strata. Under certain conditions, estimates' precision under stratified random sampling will be higher than under simple random sampling (lower standard errors may result from the estimation procedure). The strata for Enterprise Surveys are firm size, business sector, and geographic region within a country. Firm size levels are 5-19 (small), 20-99 (medium), and 100+ employees (large-sized firms). Since in most economies, the majority of firms are small and medium-sized, Enterprise Surveys oversample large firms since larger firms tend to be engines of job creation. Sector breakdown is usually manufacturing, retail, and other services. For larger economies, specific manufacturing sub-sectors are selected as additional strata on the basis of employment, value-added, and total number of establishments figures. Geographic regions within a country are selected based on which cities/regions collectively contain the majority of economic activity. Ideally the survey sample frame is derived from the universe of eligible firms obtained from the country’s statistical office. Sometimes the master list of firms is obtained from other government agencies such as tax or business licensing authorities. In some cases, the list of firms is obtained from business associations or marketing databases. In a few cases, the sample frame is created via block enumeration, where the World Bank “manually” constructs a list of eligible firms after 1) partitioning a country’s cities of major economic activity into clusters and blocks, 2) randomly selecting a subset of blocks which will then be enumerated. In surveys conducted since 2005-06, survey documentation which explains the source of the sample frame and any special circumstances encountered during survey fieldwork are included with the collected datasets. Obtaining panel data, i.e. interviews with the same firms across multiple years, is a priority in current Enterprise Surveys. When conducting a new Enterprise Survey in a country where data was previously collected, maximal effort is expended to re-interview as many firms (from the prior survey) as possible. For these panel firms, sampling weights can be adjusted to take into account the resulting altered probabilities of inclusion in the sample frame.

Original Source Notes: All surveys were administered using the Enterprise Surveys methodology as outlined in the Methodology page which can be found from www.enterprisesurveys.org.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Firm-level surveys have been conducted since the 1990's by different units within the World Bank. Since 2005-06, most data collection efforts have been centralized within the Enterprise Analysis Unit. Surveys implemented by the Enterprise Analysis Unit follow the Global Methodology. Private contractors conduct the Enterprise Surveys on behalf of the World Bank. Due to sensitive survey questions addressing business-government relations and bribery-related topics, private contractors, rather than any government agency or an organization/institution associated with government, are hired by the World Bank to collect the data. Confidentiality of the survey respondents and the sensitive information they provide is necessary to ensure the greatest degree of survey participation, integrity and confidence in the quality of the data. Surveys are usually carried out in cooperation with business organizations and government agencies promoting job creation and economic growth, but confidentiality is never compromised. The Enterprise Survey is answered by business owners and top managers. Sometimes the survey respondent calls company accountants and human resource managers into the interview to answer questions in the sales and labor sections of the survey. Typically 1200-1800 interviews are conducted in larger economies, 360 interviews are conducted in medium-sized economies, and for smaller economies, 150 interviews take place. The manufacturing and services sectors are the primary business sectors of interest. This corresponds to firms classified with ISIC codes 15-37, 45, 50-52, 55, 60-64, and 72 (ISIC Rev.3.1). Formal (registered) companies with 5 or more employees are targeted for interview. Services firms include construction, retail, wholesale, hotels, restaurants, transport, storage, communications, and IT. Firms with 100% government/state ownership are not eligible to participate in an Enterprise Survey. Occasionally, for a few surveyed countries, other sectors are included in the companies surveyed such as education or health-related businesses. In each country, businesses in the cities/regions of major economic activity are interviewed. In some countries, other surveys, which depart from the usual Enterprise Survey methodology, are conducted. Examples include 1) Informal Surveys- surveys of informal (unregistered) enterprises, 2) Micro Surveys- surveys fielded to registered firms with less than five employees, and 3) Financial Crisis Assessment Surveys- short surveys administered by telephone to assess the effects of the global financial crisis of 2008-09. The Enterprise Surveys Unit uses two instruments: the Manufacturing Questionnaire and the Services Questionnaire. Although many questions overlap, some are only applicable to one type of business. For example, retail firms are not asked about production and nonproduction workers. The standard Enterprise Survey topics include firm characteristics, gender participation, access to finance, annual sales, costs of inputs/labor, workforce composition, bribery, licensing, infrastructure, trade, crime, competition, capacity utilization, land and permits, taxation, informality, business-government relations, innovation and technology, and performance measures. Over 90% of the questions objectively ascertain characteristics of a country’s business environment. The remaining questions assess the survey respondents’ opinions on what are the obstacles to firm growth and performance. The mode of data collection is face-to-face interviews.

Aggregation method: Unweighted average

Periodicity: Annual