Bribery incidence (% of firms experiencing at least one bribe payment request) - Country Ranking

Definition: Bribery incidence is the percentage of firms experiencing at least one bribe payment request across 6 public transactions dealing with utilities access, permits, licenses, and taxes.

Source: World Bank, Enterprise Surveys (http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/).

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Syrian Arab Republic 69.60 2009
2 Cambodia 64.70 2016
3 Yemen 64.30 2013
4 Kyrgyz Republic 59.80 2013
5 Dem. Rep. Congo 56.50 2013
6 Liberia 56.10 2017
7 Angola 51.30 2010
8 Ukraine 50.40 2013
9 Bangladesh 47.70 2013
10 Afghanistan 46.80 2014
11 Sierra Leone 46.10 2017
12 Timor-Leste 44.20 2015
13 Solomon Islands 43.80 2015
14 Congo 37.50 2009
15 Iraq 37.30 2011
16 Morocco 37.20 2013
17 Tajikistan 36.30 2013
18 Chad 35.00 2009
19 Mali 33.70 2016
20 Mongolia 33.40 2013
21 Madagascar 32.90 2013
22 Moldova 31.00 2013
23 Pakistan 30.80 2013
24 Indonesia 30.60 2015
25 Samoa 30.50 2009
26 Burundi 30.30 2014
27 Myanmar 29.30 2016
28 Nigeria 28.90 2014
28 Mauritania 28.90 2014
30 Malaysia 28.20 2015
31 Guinea-Bissau 27.60 2006
32 Ethiopia 26.80 2015
33 Cameroon 26.70 2016
33 Kazakhstan 26.70 2013
35 Kenya 26.40 2013
35 Papua New Guinea 26.40 2015
37 Vietnam 26.10 2015
38 Côte d'Ivoire 25.30 2016
39 The Gambia 25.10 2006
40 Tonga 24.90 2009
41 Malawi 24.20 2014
42 Gabon 23.20 2009
43 India 22.70 2014
44 Uganda 22.00 2013
45 Central African Republic 21.00 2011
45 The Bahamas 21.00 2010
47 Tanzania 20.80 2013
48 Albania 19.50 2013
49 Jamaica 19.30 2010
50 Lebanon 19.20 2013
51 Algeria 18.80 2007
51 Montenegro 18.80 2013
53 Ghana 18.70 2013
54 Mexico 17.60 2010
54 Sudan 17.60 2014
56 Zimbabwe 17.50 2016
57 Philippines 17.20 2015
58 Lao PDR 16.40 2016
59 Azerbaijan 15.90 2013
59 Peru 15.90 2010
61 Zambia 15.80 2013
62 Egypt 15.20 2016
63 Guyana 14.90 2010
64 Lesotho 14.60 2016
65 Benin 14.50 2016
66 Nepal 14.40 2013
67 Russia 14.20 2012
68 Paraguay 13.80 2017
69 Jordan 12.70 2013
70 Mozambique 12.40 2007
71 Dominican Republic 12.30 2016
72 Vanuatu 11.90 2009
73 Brazil 11.70 2009
74 China 11.60 2012
74 St. Lucia 11.60 2010
76 Guatemala 11.30 2010
77 Senegal 11.10 2014
77 Djibouti 11.10 2013
79 Bosnia and Herzegovina 10.70 2013
80 Trinidad and Tobago 10.50 2010
80 Fiji 10.50 2009
82 Lithuania 10.40 2013
83 Argentina 10.30 2010
83 Tunisia 10.30 2013
83 Venezuela 10.30 2010
86 Sri Lanka 10.00 2011
87 Thailand 9.90 2016
88 Romania 9.80 2013
88 Burkina Faso 9.80 2009
90 Bolivia 9.10 2017
90 Namibia 9.10 2014
92 Bulgaria 8.90 2013
92 Belarus 8.90 2013
94 Honduras 8.70 2016
94 Costa Rica 8.70 2010
96 Botswana 8.40 2010
97 Guinea 7.90 2016
98 Niger 7.80 2017
99 Macedonia 7.50 2013
100 Panama 7.10 2010
100 Armenia 7.10 2013
102 Togo 7.00 2016
102 Uzbekistan 7.00 2013
104 Antigua and Barbuda 6.90 2010
104 Rwanda 6.90 2011
106 Swaziland 6.70 2016
107 Grenada 6.60 2010
108 Nicaragua 6.50 2016
109 Belize 6.20 2010
110 Serbia 6.10 2013
111 Ecuador 5.90 2017
112 Dominica 5.80 2010
113 Turkey 5.40 2013
114 Suriname 4.90 2010
114 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 4.90 2010
116 Slovak Republic 4.40 2013
117 El Salvador 4.20 2016
117 South Africa 4.20 2007
119 Mauritius 3.90 2009
119 Croatia 3.90 2013
121 Czech Republic 3.50 2013
121 Latvia 3.50 2013
123 St. Kitts and Nevis 2.20 2010
123 Georgia 2.20 2013
123 Uruguay 2.20 2010
123 Colombia 2.20 2010
127 Hungary 2.10 2013
128 Cabo Verde 2.00 2009
129 Sweden 1.90 2014
129 Poland 1.90 2013
131 Chile 1.30 2010
132 Barbados 1.20 2010
133 Bhutan 0.90 2015
134 Slovenia 0.20 2013
135 Israel 0.10 2013
136 Eritrea 0.00 2009
136 Estonia 0.00 2013

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Development Relevance: Firms evaluating investment options, governments interested in improving business conditions, and economists seeking to explain economic performance have all grappled with defining and measuring the business environment. The firm-level data from Enterprise Surveys provide a useful tool for benchmarking economies across a large number of indicators measured at the firm level. Corruption by public officials may present a major administrative and financial burden on firms. Corruption creates an unfavorable business environment by undermining the operational efficiency of firms and raising the costs and risks associated with doing business. In some countries doing business requires informal payments to "get things done" in customs, taxes, licenses, regulations, services, and the like. Such corruption can harm the business environment by distorting policymaking, undermining government credibility, and diverting public resources.

Limitations and Exceptions: The sampling methodology for Enterprise Surveys is stratified random sampling. In a simple random sample, all members of the population have the same probability of being selected and no weighting of the observations is necessary. In a stratified random sample, all population units are grouped within homogeneous groups and simple random samples are selected within each group. This method allows computing estimates for each of the strata with a specified level of precision while population estimates can also be estimated by properly weighting individual observations. The sampling weights take care of the varying probabilities of selection across different strata. Under certain conditions, estimates' precision under stratified random sampling will be higher than under simple random sampling (lower standard errors may result from the estimation procedure). The strata for Enterprise Surveys are firm size, business sector, and geographic region within a country. Firm size levels are 5-19 (small), 20-99 (medium), and 100+ employees (large-sized firms). Since in most economies, the majority of firms are small and medium-sized, Enterprise Surveys oversample large firms since larger firms tend to be engines of job creation. Sector breakdown is usually manufacturing, retail, and other services. For larger economies, specific manufacturing sub-sectors are selected as additional strata on the basis of employment, value-added, and total number of establishments figures. Geographic regions within a country are selected based on which cities/regions collectively contain the majority of economic activity. Ideally the survey sample frame is derived from the universe of eligible firms obtained from the country’s statistical office. Sometimes the master list of firms is obtained from other government agencies such as tax or business licensing authorities. In some cases, the list of firms is obtained from business associations or marketing databases. In a few cases, the sample frame is created via block enumeration, where the World Bank “manually” constructs a list of eligible firms after 1) partitioning a country’s cities of major economic activity into clusters and blocks, 2) randomly selecting a subset of blocks which will then be enumerated. In surveys conducted since 2005-06, survey documentation which explains the source of the sample frame and any special circumstances encountered during survey fieldwork are included with the collected datasets. Obtaining panel data, i.e. interviews with the same firms across multiple years, is a priority in current Enterprise Surveys. When conducting a new Enterprise Survey in a country where data was previously collected, maximal effort is expended to re-interview as many firms (from the prior survey) as possible. For these panel firms, sampling weights can be adjusted to take into account the resulting altered probabilities of inclusion in the sample frame.

Original Source Notes: All surveys were administered using the Enterprise Surveys methodology as outlined in the Methodology page which can be found from www.enterprisesurveys.org.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Firm-level surveys have been conducted since the 1990's by different units within the World Bank. Since 2005-06, most data collection efforts have been centralized within the Enterprise Analysis Unit. Surveys implemented by the Enterprise Analysis Unit follow the Global Methodology. Private contractors conduct the Enterprise Surveys on behalf of the World Bank. Due to sensitive survey questions addressing business-government relations and bribery-related topics, private contractors, rather than any government agency or an organization/institution associated with government, are hired by the World Bank to collect the data. Confidentiality of the survey respondents and the sensitive information they provide is necessary to ensure the greatest degree of survey participation, integrity and confidence in the quality of the data. Surveys are usually carried out in cooperation with business organizations and government agencies promoting job creation and economic growth, but confidentiality is never compromised. The Enterprise Survey is answered by business owners and top managers. Sometimes the survey respondent calls company accountants and human resource managers into the interview to answer questions in the sales and labor sections of the survey. Typically 1200-1800 interviews are conducted in larger economies, 360 interviews are conducted in medium-sized economies, and for smaller economies, 150 interviews take place. The manufacturing and services sectors are the primary business sectors of interest. This corresponds to firms classified with ISIC codes 15-37, 45, 50-52, 55, 60-64, and 72 (ISIC Rev.3.1). Formal (registered) companies with 5 or more employees are targeted for interview. Services firms include construction, retail, wholesale, hotels, restaurants, transport, storage, communications, and IT. Firms with 100% government/state ownership are not eligible to participate in an Enterprise Survey. Occasionally, for a few surveyed countries, other sectors are included in the companies surveyed such as education or health-related businesses. In each country, businesses in the cities/regions of major economic activity are interviewed. In some countries, other surveys, which depart from the usual Enterprise Survey methodology, are conducted. Examples include 1) Informal Surveys- surveys of informal (unregistered) enterprises, 2) Micro Surveys- surveys fielded to registered firms with less than five employees, and 3) Financial Crisis Assessment Surveys- short surveys administered by telephone to assess the effects of the global financial crisis of 2008-09. The Enterprise Surveys Unit uses two instruments: the Manufacturing Questionnaire and the Services Questionnaire. Although many questions overlap, some are only applicable to one type of business. For example, retail firms are not asked about production and nonproduction workers. The standard Enterprise Survey topics include firm characteristics, gender participation, access to finance, annual sales, costs of inputs/labor, workforce composition, bribery, licensing, infrastructure, trade, crime, competition, capacity utilization, land and permits, taxation, informality, business-government relations, innovation and technology, and performance measures. Over 90% of the questions objectively ascertain characteristics of a country’s business environment. The remaining questions assess the survey respondents’ opinions on what are the obstacles to firm growth and performance. The mode of data collection is face-to-face interviews.

Aggregation method: Unweighted average

Periodicity: Annual