Net lending (+) / net borrowing (-) (% of GDP) - Country Ranking

Definition: Net lending (+) / net borrowing (–) equals government revenue minus expense, minus net investment in nonfinancial assets. It is also equal to the net result of transactions in financial assets and liabilities. Net lending/net borrowing is a summary measure indicating the extent to which government is either putting financial resources at the disposal of other sectors in the economy or abroad, or utilizing the financial resources generated by other sectors in the economy or from abroad.

Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Kiribati 21.11 2016
2 Macao SAR, China 11.48 2016
3 Timor-Leste 8.01 2015
4 Norway 6.87 2015
5 Congo 6.58 2012
6 Singapore 5.41 2016
7 Oman 4.67 2013
8 Zambia 4.13 2011
9 Botswana 3.60 2014
10 Lesotho 3.55 2013
11 Palau 3.44 2016
12 Uzbekistan 3.39 2015
13 San Marino 3.03 2007
14 Swaziland 2.94 2012
15 Qatar 2.94 2010
16 Benin 2.72 2013
17 Dem. Rep. Congo 2.44 2010
18 Belarus 1.55 2016
19 Nepal 1.37 2016
20 Bhutan 1.35 2016
21 Bolivia 1.24 2007
22 New Zealand 1.20 2016
23 Luxembourg 1.13 2015
24 Turkey 1.12 2015
25 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1.08 2016
26 Korea 0.81 2015
27 Sweden 0.46 2015
28 Iran 0.45 2009
29 Thailand 0.45 2016
30 Germany 0.41 2015
31 Switzerland 0.26 2016
32 United Arab Emirates 0.12 2016
33 Finland 0.00 2016
34 Estonia -0.01 2015
35 Paraguay -0.06 2014
36 Lithuania -0.15 2015
37 Jamaica -0.20 2016
38 Iceland -0.22 2015
39 Algeria -0.28 2011
40 Canada -0.37 2016
41 Samoa -0.37 2016
42 Cambodia -0.39 2016
43 Guatemala -0.42 2013
44 Seychelles -0.42 2016
45 Cabo Verde -0.43 2009
46 Zimbabwe -0.54 2012
47 Nicaragua -0.61 2016
48 Liberia -0.68 2013
49 Bulgaria -0.70 2015
50 Fiji -0.86 2013
51 Honduras -0.86 2015
52 Austria -1.08 2015
53 Mongolia -1.10 2013
54 Cyprus -1.13 2015
55 Belgium -1.17 2015
56 Suriname -1.17 2012
57 Czech Republic -1.17 2015
58 El Salvador -1.17 2015
59 Afghanistan -1.28 2015
60 Bangladesh -1.34 2015
61 Ethiopia -1.35 2011
62 Malta -1.36 2015
63 Nigeria -1.42 2013
64 Romania -1.49 2015
65 Netherlands -1.53 2015
66 Denmark -1.56 2015
67 Georgia -1.70 2016
68 Mexico -1.72 2016
69 Hungary -1.72 2015
70 Côte d'Ivoire -1.86 2014
71 Burundi -1.89 2013
72 Trinidad and Tobago -1.93 2014
73 Ireland -2.09 2015
74 Madagascar -2.12 2014
75 Tanzania -2.13 2014
76 Rwanda -2.14 2016
77 Russia -2.16 2016
78 Israel -2.23 2015
79 Mauritius -2.26 2016
80 Latvia -2.27 2015
81 Philippines -2.28 2016
82 Vanuatu -2.33 2011
83 Australia -2.37 2016
84 Moldova -2.41 2016
85 Indonesia -2.48 2016
86 Albania -2.53 2016
87 Poland -2.56 2015
88 Ukraine -2.58 2016
89 The Bahamas -2.58 2015
90 Spain -2.63 2015
91 Mozambique -2.64 2012
92 Antigua and Barbuda -2.70 2014
93 St. Lucia -2.71 2014
94 Azerbaijan -2.72 2015
95 Dominican Republic -2.74 2016
96 Uganda -2.74 2016
97 Chile -2.76 2016
98 Slovak Republic -2.85 2015
99 Kazakhstan -2.89 2016
100 Italy -2.91 2015
101 Slovenia -2.96 2015
102 Peru -3.00 2015
103 Sierra Leone -3.04 2014
104 Syrian Arab Republic -3.06 2007
105 Malaysia -3.15 2015
106 Malawi -3.32 2016
107 St. Kitts and Nevis -3.35 2014
108 Burkina Faso -3.38 2016
109 Bahrain -3.49 2013
110 France -3.52 2015
111 Mali -3.53 2016
112 Belize -3.64 2014
113 Lao PDR -3.73 2015
114 Dominica -3.83 2014
115 Kyrgyz Republic -3.89 2016
116 St. Vincent and the Grenadines -3.91 2014
117 Macedonia -3.93 2012
118 United States -3.96 2016
119 Croatia -3.98 2014
120 Colombia -4.00 2015
121 Solomon Islands -4.06 2016
122 Morocco -4.06 2011
123 India -4.07 2013
124 United Kingdom -4.09 2015
125 Senegal -4.24 2016
126 Japan -4.50 2015
127 The Gambia -4.67 2009
128 Grenada -4.68 2014
129 Armenia -4.70 2015
130 South Africa -4.75 2015
131 Portugal -4.80 2015
132 Papua New Guinea -4.87 2016
133 Jordan -4.97 2012
134 Tunisia -5.06 2012
135 Sri Lanka -5.42 2016
136 Argentina -5.45 2016
137 Vietnam -5.67 2013
138 Costa Rica -5.82 2014
139 Serbia -6.09 2012
140 Uruguay -6.16 2014
141 Pakistan -6.40 2011
142 Equatorial Guinea -6.47 2009
143 Central African Republic -6.74 2011
144 Iraq -6.87 2016
145 Angola -6.93 2015
146 Ghana -7.13 2010
147 Brazil -7.67 2015
148 Greece -7.77 2015
149 Namibia -7.97 2015
150 Togo -8.34 2016
151 Kenya -8.74 2015
152 Lebanon -9.55 2016
153 Egypt -10.01 2012
154 Barbados -11.36 2013
155 São Tomé and Principe -12.74 2012
156 Kuwait -20.95 2015

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Limitations and Exceptions: For most countries central government finance data have been consolidated into one account, but for others only budgetary central government accounts are available. Countries reporting budgetary data are noted in the country metadata. Because budgetary accounts may not include all central government units (such as social security funds), they usually provide an incomplete picture. In federal states the central government accounts provide an incomplete view of total public finance. Data on government revenue and expense are collected by the IMF through questionnaires to member countries and by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Despite IMF efforts to standardize data collection, statistics are often incomplete, untimely, and not comparable across countries.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The IMF's Government Finance Statistics Manual 2014, harmonized with the 2008 SNA, recommends an accrual accounting method, focusing on all economic events affecting assets, liabilities, revenues, and expenses, not just those represented by cash transactions. It accounts for all changes in stocks, so stock data at the end of an accounting period equal stock data at the beginning of the period plus flows over the period. The 1986 manual considered only debt stocks. Government finance statistics are reported in local currency. Many countries report government finance data by fiscal year; see country metadata for information on fiscal year end by country.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual