Central government debt, total (% of GDP) - Country Ranking

Definition: Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year.

Source: International Monetary Fund, Government Finance Statistics Yearbook and data files, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Japan 196.42 2016
2 Côte d'Ivoire 171.07 1995
3 Burundi 162.56 1999
4 Dem. Rep. Congo 152.19 1997
5 Barbados 141.41 2015
6 Lebanon 128.64 1999
7 Jamaica 122.67 2016
8 United Kingdom 114.97 2016
9 Singapore 109.40 2016
10 Bhutan 107.65 2016
11 Spain 104.57 2016
12 United States 99.02 2016
13 Hungary 96.19 2016
14 Cyprus 91.67 1994
15 Israel 91.49 1999
16 Egypt 85.79 2007
17 Ireland 84.83 2016
18 Albania 80.74 2016
19 Belize 78.48 2014
20 Sri Lanka 77.65 2015
21 Italy 77.46 1992
22 Jordan 75.39 2016
23 Denmark 75.26 1994
24 Pakistan 74.03 2000
25 Brazil 73.44 2016
26 Iceland 73.18 2016
27 Ukraine 71.81 2016
28 Malta 69.81 1994
29 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 68.75 2014
30 Bolivia 68.34 2001
31 Palau 67.54 2016
32 St. Lucia 64.82 2014
33 Seychelles 63.34 2015
34 Kyrgyz Republic 60.47 2016
35 St. Kitts and Nevis 59.90 2014
36 Mongolia 59.51 2009
37 Finland 58.25 1994
38 Colombia 57.41 2016
39 Morocco 55.63 2011
40 Netherlands 54.29 1994
41 San Marino 53.77 2016
42 Bosnia and Herzegovina 52.87 2016
43 El Salvador 52.15 2016
44 Malaysia 51.89 2016
45 Tonga 51.81 2016
46 The Bahamas 51.42 2016
47 Uruguay 50.68 2016
48 India 50.31 2013
49 Zambia 49.41 2015
50 Malawi 48.66 2017
51 Rwanda 48.43 1992
52 Philippines 45.39 2014
53 Tunisia 44.66 2012
54 New Zealand 42.42 2016
55 Georgia 42.14 2016
56 Korea 40.36 2016
57 Belarus 39.96 2016
58 Costa Rica 39.49 2001
59 Fiji 36.64 1994
60 Mauritius 36.51 2012
61 Thailand 35.27 2015
62 Nepal 33.86 2010
63 Moldova 31.89 2016
64 Turkey 31.87 2016
65 Indonesia 31.37 2016
66 Bangladesh 31.20 2003
67 Norway 30.75 1994
68 Papua New Guinea 29.88 2015
69 Bahrain 29.40 2004
70 Iraq 28.08 2016
71 Congo 27.88 2010
72 Vanuatu 27.30 1999
73 South Africa 26.02 2008
74 Peru 23.18 2016
75 Namibia 23.08 2014
76 Guatemala 22.12 2016
77 Liberia 20.85 2012
78 Switzerland 19.73 2016
79 Germany 19.18 1999
80 Mexico 19.07 2000
81 Slovenia 17.69 1994
82 Kazakhstan 16.77 2016
83 Dominican Republic 16.42 1999
84 Trinidad and Tobago 15.93 2007
85 Botswana 15.24 2016
86 Czech Republic 14.18 1994
87 Russia 14.18 2016
88 Ethiopia 10.73 2013
89 Latvia 9.02 1994
90 Solomon Islands 7.02 2016
91 Azerbaijan 6.39 2010
92 Portugal 5.66 1994
93 Luxembourg 2.80 1993
94 United Arab Emirates 1.89 2013
95 Australia 0.05 2016

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Limitations and Exceptions: For most countries central government finance data have been consolidated into one account, but for others only budgetary central government accounts are available. Countries reporting budgetary data are noted in the country metadata. Because budgetary accounts may not include all central government units (such as social security funds), they usually provide an incomplete picture. In federal states the central government accounts provide an incomplete view of total public finance. Data on government revenue and expense are collected by the IMF through questionnaires to member countries and by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Despite IMF efforts to standardize data collection, statistics are often incomplete, untimely, and not comparable across countries.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The IMF's Government Finance Statistics Manual 2014, harmonized with the 2008 SNA, recommends an accrual accounting method, focusing on all economic events affecting assets, liabilities, revenues, and expenses, not just those represented by cash transactions. It accounts for all changes in stocks, so stock data at the end of an accounting period equal stock data at the beginning of the period plus flows over the period. The 1986 manual considered only debt stocks. Government finance statistics are reported in local currency. Many countries report government finance data by fiscal year; see country metadata for information on fiscal year end by country.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual