Research and development expenditure (% of GDP) - Country Ranking

Definition: Gross domestic expenditures on research and development (R&D), expressed as a percent of GDP. They include both capital and current expenditures in the four main sectors: Business enterprise, Government, Higher education and Private non-profit. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development.

Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (http://uis.unesco.org/)

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Israel 4.58 2017
2 Korea 4.55 2017
3 Switzerland 3.37 2015
4 Sweden 3.31 2017
5 Japan 3.20 2017
6 Austria 3.16 2017
7 Denmark 3.10 2017
8 Germany 3.04 2017
9 United States 2.80 2017
10 Finland 2.76 2017
11 Belgium 2.61 2017
12 Singapore 2.22 2016
13 France 2.19 2017
14 Iceland 2.18 2017
15 China 2.13 2017
16 Norway 2.11 2017
17 Netherlands 2.00 2017
18 Australia 1.92 2015
19 Slovenia 1.85 2017
20 Czech Republic 1.79 2017
21 United Kingdom 1.67 2017
22 Canada 1.59 2017
23 Malaysia 1.44 2016
24 Italy 1.36 2017
25 Hungary 1.35 2017
26 Portugal 1.33 2017
27 Estonia 1.32 2017
28 Brazil 1.27 2016
29 Luxembourg 1.25 2017
30 New Zealand 1.23 2015
31 Spain 1.21 2017
32 Greece 1.14 2017
33 Russia 1.11 2017
34 Ireland 1.04 2017
35 Poland 1.04 2017
36 United Arab Emirates 0.96 2016
37 Turkey 0.96 2017
38 Serbia 0.93 2017
39 Lithuania 0.89 2017
40 Slovak Republic 0.88 2017
41 Croatia 0.87 2017
42 South Africa 0.82 2016
43 Saudi Arabia 0.82 2013
44 Hong Kong SAR, China 0.80 2017
45 Kenya 0.79 2010
46 Thailand 0.78 2016
47 Bulgaria 0.77 2017
48 Senegal 0.75 2015
49 Jordan 0.72 2016
50 Morocco 0.71 2010
51 Burkina Faso 0.67 2017
52 Greenland 0.65 2004
53 India 0.62 2015
54 Egypt 0.61 2017
55 Ethiopia 0.60 2013
56 Tunisia 0.60 2016
57 Belarus 0.59 2017
58 Gabon 0.58 2009
59 Cyprus 0.57 2017
60 Malta 0.55 2017
61 Botswana 0.54 2013
62 Algeria 0.53 2017
63 Argentina 0.53 2016
64 Tanzania 0.53 2013
65 Vietnam 0.53 2017
66 Latvia 0.51 2017
67 Qatar 0.51 2015
68 Romania 0.50 2017
69 Mexico 0.49 2016
70 Costa Rica 0.46 2016
71 Ukraine 0.45 2017
72 Ecuador 0.44 2014
73 Puerto Rico 0.43 2015
74 Uruguay 0.41 2016
75 Dem. Rep. Congo 0.41 2015
76 Ghana 0.38 2010
77 Mauritius 0.36 2017
78 Chile 0.36 2016
79 North Macedonia 0.35 2017
80 Cuba 0.35 2016
81 Namibia 0.34 2014
82 Mozambique 0.34 2015
83 St. Lucia 0.33 1999
84 Montenegro 0.32 2016
85 Chad 0.32 2016
86 Nepal 0.30 2010
87 Moldova 0.30 2017
88 Sudan 0.30 2005
89 Mali 0.29 2017
90 Georgia 0.29 2017
91 Zambia 0.28 2008
92 Togo 0.27 2014
93 Eswatini 0.27 2015
94 Iran 0.25 2013
95 Colombia 0.24 2017
96 Indonesia 0.24 2017
97 Pakistan 0.24 2017
98 Armenia 0.23 2017
99 Oman 0.22 2017
100 Seychelles 0.22 2016
101 Nigeria 0.22 2007
102 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.20 2017
103 Uzbekistan 0.19 2017
104 Azerbaijan 0.19 2017
105 Macao SAR, China 0.17 2017
106 Uganda 0.17 2014
107 Bolivia 0.16 2009
108 Albania 0.15 2008
109 Paraguay 0.15 2016
110 El Salvador 0.15 2016
111 Philippines 0.14 2013
112 Mongolia 0.13 2017
113 The Gambia 0.13 2011
114 Kazakhstan 0.13 2017
115 Burundi 0.12 2011
116 Peru 0.12 2017
117 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 0.12 2002
118 Venezuela 0.12 2016
119 Cambodia 0.12 2015
120 Tajikistan 0.12 2017
121 Kyrgyz Republic 0.11 2017
122 Sri Lanka 0.11 2015
123 Nicaragua 0.11 2015
124 Bahrain 0.10 2014
125 Côte d'Ivoire 0.09 2016
126 Trinidad and Tobago 0.09 2016
127 Kuwait 0.08 2017
128 Cabo Verde 0.07 2011
129 Panama 0.06 2013
130 Jamaica 0.06 2002
131 Lesotho 0.05 2015
132 Iraq 0.04 2017
133 Monaco 0.04 2005
134 Lao PDR 0.04 2002
135 Brunei 0.04 2004
136 Papua New Guinea 0.03 2016
137 Myanmar 0.03 2017
138 Guatemala 0.03 2015
139 Honduras 0.01 2015
140 Madagascar 0.01 2017
141 Syrian Arab Republic 0.01 2015

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Development Relevance: Expenditure on research and development (R&D) is a key indicator of government and private sector efforts to obtain competitive advantage in science and technology.

Limitations and Exceptions: Estimates of the resources allocated to R&D are affected by national characteristics such as the periodicity and coverage of national R&D surveys across institutional sectors and industries; and the use of different sampling and estimation methods. R&D typically involves a few large performers, hence R&D surveys use various techniques to maintain up-to-date registers of known performers, while attempting to identify new or occasional performers. R&D totals from SNA accounts may differ from these estimates, due in part to the different treatments of software R&D in the totals.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The gross domestic expenditure on R&D indicator consists of the total expenditure (current and capital) on R&D by all resident companies, research institutes, university and government laboratories, etc. It excludes R&D expenditures financed by domestic firms but performed abroad. The OECD's Frascati Manual defines research and experimental development as "creative work undertaken on a systemic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development. (1) Basic research - Basic research is experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view (2) Applied research - Applied research is also original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge; it is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective. (3) Experimental development - Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed. The fields of science and technology used to classify R&D according to the Revised Fields of Science and Technology Classification are: 1. Natural sciences; 2. Engineering and technology; 3. Medical and health sciences; 4. Agricultural sciences; 5. Social sciences; 6. Humanities and the arts. The data are obtained through statistical surveys which are regularly conducted at national level covering R&D performing entities in the private and public sectors.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual