Annual freshwater withdrawals, industry (% of total freshwater withdrawal) - Country Ranking

Definition: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for industry are total withdrawals for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Estonia 96.22 2014
2 Netherlands 88.12 2014
3 Belgium 87.53 2014
4 Slovenia 85.47 2014
5 Germany 83.27 2014
6 Moldova 82.86 2014
7 Finland 82.13 2014
8 Canada 80.15 2014
9 Hungary 79.45 2014
10 Austria 77.18 2014
11 Puerto Rico 75.85 2014
12 Poland 73.63 2014
13 Bulgaria 72.48 2014
14 France 71.49 2014
15 Romania 67.05 2014
16 Lithuania 65.87 2014
17 Czech Republic 60.73 2014
18 Russia 59.82 2014
19 Sweden 58.46 2014
20 United States 51.15 2014
21 Singapore 51.00 2014
22 Slovak Republic 49.42 2014
23 Ukraine 47.99 2014
24 Lesotho 45.66 2014
25 Mongolia 43.19 2014
26 Malaysia 42.75 2014
27 Papua New Guinea 42.74 2014
28 Norway 40.75 2014
29 Montenegro 39.03 2014
30 Liberia 36.24 2014
31 Macedonia 36.16 2014
32 Italy 35.87 2014
33 Angola 33.95 2014
34 Trinidad and Tobago 33.64 2014
35 Switzerland 32.05 2014
36 Belarus 31.57 2014
37 Kazakhstan 29.63 2014
38 Seychelles 27.74 2014
39 Sierra Leone 26.15 2014
40 China 23.13 2014
41 Benin 23.08 2014
42 New Zealand 22.76 2014
43 Georgia 22.06 2014
44 Suriname 22.00 2014
45 Congo 21.74 2014
45 Antigua and Barbuda 21.74 2014
47 Dem. Rep. Congo 21.47 2014
48 Latvia 21.07 2014
49 Belize 20.99 2014
50 Côte d'Ivoire 20.53 2014
51 Croatia 19.88 2014
52 Denmark 19.63 2014
53 Azerbaijan 19.33 2014
54 The Gambia 19.23 2014
55 Colombia 19.05 2014
56 Guatemala 18.14 2014
57 Botswana 18.04 2014
58 Albania 17.68 2014
59 Spain 17.60 2014
60 Brazil 17.00 2014
61 Central African Republic 16.55 2014
62 Korea 15.26 2014
63 Nigeria 14.99 2014
64 Equatorial Guinea 14.94 2014
65 Bosnia and Herzegovina 14.83 2014
66 Iraq 14.70 2014
67 Japan 14.25 2014
68 United Kingdom 14.01 2014
69 Portugal 13.44 2014
70 Chile 13.39 2014
71 Dem. People's Rep. Korea 13.22 2014
72 Australia 12.75 2014
73 Chad 11.79 2014
74 Lebanon 11.45 2014
75 Fiji 11.31 2014
76 Costa Rica 11.06 2014
77 Turkey 10.72 2014
78 Cuba 10.63 2014
79 Argentina 10.59 2014
80 South Africa 10.48 2014
81 Gabon 10.14 2014
82 Philippines 10.12 2014
83 El Salvador 10.06 2014
84 Ghana 9.67 2014
85 Guinea 9.42 2014
86 Jamaica 9.36 2014
87 Mexico 9.07 2014
88 Iceland 8.49 2014
89 Zambia 8.27 2014
90 Dominican Republic 8.19 2014
91 Rwanda 8.00 2014
92 Uganda 7.85 2014
93 Barbados 7.65 2014
94 Honduras 7.09 2014
95 Cameroon 7.07 2014
96 Ireland 6.99 2014
97 Indonesia 6.53 2014
98 Sri Lanka 6.42 2014
99 Paraguay 6.38 2014
100 Zimbabwe 6.02 2014
101 Burundi 5.90 2014
102 Israel 5.78 2014
103 Bahrain 5.68 2014
104 Ecuador 5.54 2014
105 Comoros 5.00 2014
106 Tunisia 4.99 2014
107 Algeria 4.93 2014
108 Lao PDR 4.87 2014
109 Namibia 4.86 2014
110 Thailand 4.85 2014
111 Libya 4.80 2014
112 Nicaragua 4.76 2014
113 Luxembourg 4.64 2014
114 Guinea-Bissau 4.57 2014
115 Armenia 4.37 2014
116 Kyrgyz Republic 4.20 2014
117 Jordan 4.08 2014
118 Kenya 3.88 2014
119 Vietnam 3.75 2014
120 Syrian Arab Republic 3.67 2014
121 Tajikistan 3.55 2014
122 Haiti 3.52 2014
123 Malawi 3.52 2014
124 Venezuela 3.51 2014
125 Greece 3.38 2014
126 Niger 3.33 2014
127 Turkmenistan 3.00 2014
128 Saudi Arabia 3.00 2014
129 Mauritius 2.76 2014
130 Mozambique 2.75 2014
131 Uzbekistan 2.68 2014
132 Burkina Faso 2.65 2014
133 Senegal 2.61 2014
134 Egypt 2.56 2014
135 Togo 2.37 2014
136 Mauritania 2.36 2014
137 Cyprus 2.35 2014
138 Kuwait 2.28 2014
139 India 2.23 2014
140 Malta 2.21 2014
141 Uruguay 2.19 2014
142 Bangladesh 2.15 2014
143 Peru 2.12 2014
144 Morocco 2.03 2014
145 Yemen 1.82 2014
146 Cabo Verde 1.82 2014
147 Qatar 1.80 2014
148 United Arab Emirates 1.73 2014
149 Bolivia 1.53 2014
150 Cambodia 1.51 2014
151 Oman 1.44 2014
152 Guyana 1.41 2014
153 Iran 1.18 2014
154 Swaziland 1.15 2014
155 Myanmar 1.00 2014
156 Panama 0.96 2014
157 Bhutan 0.89 2014
158 Madagascar 0.79 2014
159 Pakistan 0.76 2014
160 Ethiopia 0.65 2014
161 Afghanistan 0.63 2014
162 Tanzania 0.48 2014
163 Nepal 0.31 2014
164 Sudan 0.28 2014
165 Eritrea 0.17 2014
166 Timor-Leste 0.17 2014
167 Mali 0.08 2014
168 Somalia 0.06 2014
169 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 0.02 2014
170 Monaco 0.00 2014
170 Grenada 0.00 2014
170 Djibouti 0.00 2014
170 Dominica 0.00 2014
170 St. Kitts and Nevis 0.00 2014
170 St. Lucia 0.00 2014

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Development Relevance: While some countries have an abundant supply of fresh water, others do not have as much. UN estimates that many areas of the world are already experiencing stress on water availability. Due to the accelerated pace of population growth and an increase in the amount of water a single person uses, it is expected that this situation will continue to get worse. The ability of developing countries to make more water available for domestic, agricultural, industrial and environmental uses will depend on better management of water resources and more cross-sectorial planning and integration. According to World Water Council, by 2020, water use is expected to increase by 40 percent, and 17 percent more water will be required for food production to meet the needs of the growing population. The three major factors causing increasing water demand over the past century are population growth, industrial development and the expansion of irrigated agriculture. UNESCO estimates that Industrial uses account for about 20 percent of global freshwater withdrawals. Of this, 57-69 percent is used for hydropower and nuclear power generation, 30-40 percent for industrial processes, and 0.5-3 percent for thermal power generation. Water productivity is an indication only of the efficiency by which each country uses its water resources. Given the different economic structure of each country, these indicators should be used carefully, taking into account a country's sectorial activities and natural resource endowments. According to Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) agriculture accounts for more than 70 percent of freshwater drawn from lakes, rivers and underground sources. Most is used for irrigation which provides about 40 percent of the world food production. Poor management has resulted in the salinization of about 20 percent of the world's irrigated land, with an additional 1.5 million ha affected annually. There is now ample evidence that increased hydrologic variability and change in climate has and will continue to have a profound impact on the water sector through the hydrologic cycle, water availability, water demand, and water allocation at the global, regional, basin, and local levels. Properly managed water resources are a critical component of growth, poverty reduction and equity. The livelihoods of the poorest are critically associated with access to water services. A shortage of water in the future would be detrimental to the human population as it would affect everything from sanitation, to overall health and the production of grain. Freshwater use by continents is partly based on several socio-economic development factors, including population, physiography, and climatic characteristics. It is estimated that in the coming decades the most intensive growth of water withdrawal is expected to occur in Africa and South America (increasing by 1.5-1.6 times), while the smallest growth will take place in Europe and North America (1.2 times). The Commission for Sustainable Development (CSD) has reported that many countries lack adequate legislation and policies for efficient and equitable allocation and use of water resources. Progress is, however, being made with the review of national legislation and enactment of new laws and regulations.

Limitations and Exceptions: A common perception is that most of the available freshwater resources are visible (on the surfaces of lakes, reservoirs and rivers). However, this visible water represents only a tiny fraction of global freshwater resources, as most of it is stored in aquifers, with the largest stocks stored in solid form in the Antarctic and in Greenland's ice cap. The data on freshwater resources are based on estimates of runoff into rivers and recharge of groundwater. These estimates are based on different sources and refer to different years, so cross-country comparisons should be made with caution. Because the data are collected intermittently, they may hide significant variations in total renewable water resources from year to year. The data also fail to distinguish between seasonal and geographic variations in water availability within countries. Data for small countries and countries in arid and semiarid zones are less reliable than those for larger countries and countries with greater rainfall. Caution should also be used in comparing data on annual freshwater withdrawals, which are subject to variations in collection and estimation methods. In addition, inflows and outflows are estimated at different times and at different levels of quality and precision, requiring caution in interpreting the data, particularly for water-short countries, notably in the Middle East and North Africa. The data are based on surveys and estimates provided by governments to the Joint Monitoring Programme of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). The coverage rates are based on information from service users on actual household use rather than on information from service providers, which may include nonfunctioning systems.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Annual industrial freshwater withdrawals include renewable water resources as well as potential over-abstraction of renewable groundwater or potential use of desalinated water or treated wastewater. It includes water for the cooling of thermoelectric plants, but it does not include hydropower. Water withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where water reuse is significant. Withdrawals for industry are total withdrawals for direct industrial use (including withdrawals for cooling thermoelectric plants). Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual