Annual freshwater withdrawals, domestic (% of total freshwater withdrawal) - Country Ranking

Definition: Annual freshwater withdrawals refer to total water withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses from storage basins. Withdrawals also include water from desalination plants in countries where they are a significant source. Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where there is significant water reuse. Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes. Data are for the most recent year available for 1987-2002.

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization, AQUASTAT data.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Monaco 100.00 2014
1 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 100.00 2014
3 St. Kitts and Nevis 98.72 2014
4 Dominica 95.00 2014
5 Luxembourg 94.66 2014
6 Grenada 85.11 2014
7 Djibouti 84.21 2014
8 Ireland 82.96 2014
9 Central African Republic 82.90 2014
10 Croatia 80.14 2014
11 Equatorial Guinea 79.31 2014
12 United Kingdom 71.41 2014
13 Congo 69.57 2014
14 Dem. Rep. Congo 68.01 2014
15 Seychelles 65.69 2014
16 Latvia 64.29 2014
17 Antigua and Barbuda 62.61 2014
18 Trinidad and Tobago 62.00 2014
19 Gabon 60.89 2014
20 Switzerland 59.95 2014
21 Montenegro 59.91 2014
22 Papua New Guinea 57.00 2014
23 Panama 56.03 2014
24 Denmark 55.21 2014
25 Liberia 54.36 2014
26 Togo 52.66 2014
27 Sierra Leone 52.31 2014
28 Uganda 51.49 2014
29 Bahrain 49.78 2014
30 Iceland 49.09 2014
31 Comoros 48.00 2014
32 Slovak Republic 45.96 2014
33 Burkina Faso 45.92 2014
34 Lesotho 45.66 2014
35 Angola 45.27 2014
36 Singapore 45.00 2014
37 Kuwait 43.86 2014
38 Albania 42.81 2014
39 Macedonia 41.07 2014
40 Côte d'Ivoire 41.05 2014
41 Botswana 40.72 2014
42 Qatar 39.19 2014
43 Czech Republic 38.45 2014
44 Sweden 37.90 2014
45 Guinea 37.65 2014
46 The Gambia 37.46 2014
47 Kenya 36.86 2014
48 Israel 36.44 2014
49 Belarus 36.13 2014
50 Algeria 35.85 2014
51 Jamaica 35.47 2014
52 Malaysia 34.84 2014
53 Malta 33.77 2014
54 Cyprus 32.94 2014
55 Costa Rica 32.34 2014
56 Benin 31.54 2014
57 Norway 31.34 2014
58 Nigeria 31.27 2014
59 Jordan 30.96 2014
60 Niger 29.93 2014
61 Fiji 29.80 2014
62 Mauritius 29.52 2014
63 Armenia 29.50 2014
64 St. Lucia 29.14 2014
65 Lebanon 29.01 2014
66 South Africa 27.00 2014
67 Colombia 26.63 2014
68 Namibia 25.35 2014
69 Guatemala 25.12 2014
70 Barbados 24.69 2014
71 Cuba 24.43 2014
72 Rwanda 24.00 2014
73 Ghana 23.93 2014
74 Lithuania 23.74 2014
75 Korea 23.71 2014
76 Brazil 23.00 2014
77 Venezuela 22.64 2014
78 Puerto Rico 22.60 2014
79 El Salvador 22.38 2014
80 Ukraine 21.99 2014
81 Australia 21.56 2014
82 Austria 20.62 2014
83 Russia 20.24 2014
84 Georgia 19.75 2014
85 Honduras 19.60 2014
86 Mozambique 19.22 2014
87 Japan 18.92 2014
88 Nicaragua 18.51 2014
89 Zambia 18.45 2014
90 France 18.13 2014
91 Poland 17.91 2014
92 Italy 17.58 2014
93 Burundi 17.01 2014
94 Cameroon 16.67 2014
95 Bulgaria 16.24 2014
96 New Zealand 15.57 2014
97 Argentina 15.48 2014
98 Turkey 15.46 2014
99 United Arab Emirates 15.43 2014
100 Romania 15.27 2014
101 Tunisia 15.01 2014
102 Paraguay 15.00 2014
103 Mexico 14.25 2014
104 Canada 14.23 2014
105 Spain 14.21 2014
106 Slovenia 14.19 2014
107 Hungary 14.18 2014
108 Germany 13.82 2014
109 Moldova 13.71 2014
110 Guinea-Bissau 13.14 2014
111 Haiti 13.10 2014
112 Ecuador 13.04 2014
113 Mongolia 12.89 2014
114 United States 12.79 2014
115 China 12.34 2014
116 Libya 12.01 2014
117 Dominican Republic 11.95 2014
118 Zimbabwe 11.90 2014
119 Belgium 11.81 2014
120 Chad 11.79 2014
121 Indonesia 11.59 2014
122 Egypt 11.54 2014
123 Netherlands 11.35 2014
124 Belize 11.29 2014
125 Uruguay 11.20 2014
126 Portugal 10.67 2014
127 Malawi 10.55 2014
128 Dem. People's Rep. Korea 10.43 2014
129 Ethiopia 10.30 2014
130 Morocco 10.19 2014
131 Tanzania 10.17 2014
132 Oman 10.14 2014
133 Bangladesh 10.04 2014
134 Myanmar 10.00 2014
135 Peru 9.18 2014
136 Saudi Arabia 9.00 2014
137 Syrian Arab Republic 8.80 2014
138 Greece 8.79 2014
139 Timor-Leste 8.45 2014
140 Suriname 8.01 2014
141 Philippines 7.65 2014
142 Yemen 7.43 2014
143 India 7.36 2014
144 Uzbekistan 7.32 2014
145 Cabo Verde 7.27 2014
146 Mauritania 7.07 2014
147 Iran 6.65 2014
148 Iraq 6.52 2014
149 Bolivia 6.51 2014
150 Finland 6.24 2014
151 Sri Lanka 6.22 2014
152 Tajikistan 5.63 2014
153 Eritrea 5.33 2014
154 Pakistan 5.26 2014
155 Bhutan 5.03 2014
156 Thailand 4.78 2014
157 Cambodia 4.49 2014
158 Senegal 4.41 2014
159 Azerbaijan 4.27 2014
160 Guyana 4.24 2014
161 Kazakhstan 4.15 2014
162 Lao PDR 3.72 2014
163 Chile 3.58 2014
164 Sudan 3.53 2014
165 Estonia 3.49 2014
166 Kyrgyz Republic 2.80 2014
167 Turkmenistan 2.70 2014
168 Swaziland 2.30 2014
169 Mali 2.06 2014
170 Nepal 1.55 2014
171 Vietnam 1.47 2014
172 Madagascar 1.45 2014
173 Afghanistan 0.76 2014
174 Somalia 0.45 2014

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Development Relevance: UNESCO estimates that in developing countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, public water withdrawal represents just 50-100 liters (13 to 26 gallons) per person per day. In regions with insufficient water resources, this figure may be as low as 20-60 (5 to 15 gallons) liters per day. People in developed countries on average consume about 10 times more water daily than those in developing countries. While some countries have an abundant supply of fresh water, others do not have as much. UN estimates that many areas of the world are already experiencing stress on water availability. Due to the accelerated pace of population growth and an increase in the amount of water a single person uses, it is expected that this situation will continue to get worse. The ability of developing countries to make more water available for domestic, agricultural, industrial and environmental uses will depend on better management of water resources and more cross-sectorial planning and integration. According to World Water Council, by 2020, water use is expected to increase by 40 percent, and 17 percent more water will be required for food production to meet the needs of the growing population. The three major factors causing increasing water demand over the past century are population growth, industrial development and the expansion of irrigated agriculture. Water productivity is an indication only of the efficiency by which each country uses its water resources. Given the different economic structure of each country, these indicators should be used carefully, taking into account a country's sectorial activities and natural resource endowments. According to Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) agriculture accounts for more than 70 percent of freshwater drawn from lakes, rivers and underground sources. Most is used for irrigation which provides about 40 percent of the world food production. Poor management has resulted in the salinization of about 20 percent of the world's irrigated land, with an additional 1.5 million ha affected annually. There is now ample evidence that increased hydrologic variability and change in climate has and will continue to have a profound impact on the water sector through the hydrologic cycle, water availability, water demand, and water allocation at the global, regional, basin, and local levels. Properly managed water resources are a critical component of growth, poverty reduction and equity. The livelihoods of the poorest are critically associated with access to water services. A shortage of water in the future would be detrimental to the human population as it would affect everything from sanitation, to overall health and the production of grain. Freshwater use by continents is partly based on several socio-economic development factors, including population, physiography, and climatic characteristics. It is estimated that in the coming decades the most intensive growth of water withdrawal is expected to occur in Africa and South America (increasing by 1.5-1.6 times), while the smallest growth will take place in Europe and North America (1.2 times). The Commission for Sustainable Development (CSD) has reported that many countries lack adequate legislation and policies for efficient and equitable allocation and use of water resources. Progress is, however, being made with the review of national legislation and enactment of new laws and regulations.

Limitations and Exceptions: A common perception is that most of the available freshwater resources are visible (on the surfaces of lakes, reservoirs and rivers). However, this visible water represents only a tiny fraction of global freshwater resources, as most of it is stored in aquifers, with the largest stocks stored in solid form in the Antarctic and in Greenland's ice cap. The data on freshwater resources are based on estimates of runoff into rivers and recharge of groundwater. These estimates are based on different sources and refer to different years, so cross-country comparisons should be made with caution. Because the data are collected intermittently, they may hide significant variations in total renewable water resources from year to year. The data also fail to distinguish between seasonal and geographic variations in water availability within countries. Data for small countries and countries in arid and semiarid zones are less reliable than those for larger countries and countries with greater rainfall. Caution should also be used in comparing data on annual freshwater withdrawals, which are subject to variations in collection and estimation methods. In addition, inflows and outflows are estimated at different times and at different levels of quality and precision, requiring caution in interpreting the data, particularly for water-short countries, notably in the Middle East and North Africa. The data are based on surveys and estimates provided by governments to the Joint Monitoring Programme of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). The coverage rates are based on information from service users on actual household use rather than on information from service providers, which may include nonfunctioning systems.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Domestic water withdrawal, sometimes used interchangeably with municipal water withdrawal, focuses on human needs (drinking, cooking, cleaning, and sanitation). Data includes renewable freshwater resources, potential over-abstraction of renewable groundwater, withdrawal of fossil groundwater, and the potential use of desalinated water or treated wastewater. It is usually computed as the total water withdrawn by the public distribution network, and includes that part of the industries, which is connected to the municipal network. The ratio between the net consumption and the water withdrawn can vary from 5 to 15 percent in urban areas and from 10 to 50 percent in rural areas. Water withdrawals can exceed 100 percent of total renewable resources where extraction from nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is considerable or where water reuse is significant. Withdrawals for domestic uses include drinking water, municipal use or supply, and use for public services, commercial establishments, and homes.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual