Total greenhouse gas emissions (% change from 1990) - Country Ranking - Europe

Definition: Total greenhouse gas emissions are composed of CO2 totals excluding short-cycle biomass burning (such as agricultural waste burning and Savannah burning) but including other biomass burning (such as forest fires, post-burn decay, peat fires and decay of drained peatlands), all anthropogenic CH4 sources, N2O sources and F-gases (HFCs, PFCs and SF6). Each year of data shows the percentage change to that year from 1990.

Source: World Bank staff estimates from original source: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)/Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL). Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR):

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Turkey 98.54 2012
2 Cyprus 44.85 2012
3 Portugal 24.55 2012
4 Malta 23.89 2007
5 Spain 18.72 2012
6 Austria 13.31 2012
7 Slovenia 5.49 2012
8 Greece 4.05 2012
9 Belgium -3.26 2012
10 Luxembourg -3.75 2012
11 Switzerland -4.05 2012
12 Ireland -4.80 2012
13 Italy -5.14 2012
14 Norway -5.82 2012
15 Finland -8.58 2012
16 North Macedonia -9.33 2012
17 France -10.01 2012
18 Croatia -12.42 2012
19 Poland -12.53 2012
20 Netherlands -12.74 2012
21 Bosnia and Herzegovina -13.44 2012
22 Sweden -14.78 2012
23 Albania -19.92 2012
24 Germany -24.23 2012
25 United Kingdom -24.63 2012
26 Denmark -25.91 2012
27 Czech Republic -29.18 2012
28 Hungary -35.43 2012
29 Slovak Republic -35.93 2012
30 Bulgaria -37.14 2012
31 Belarus -40.86 2012
32 Lithuania -45.82 2012
33 Romania -50.76 2012
34 Ukraine -57.52 2012
35 Estonia -58.25 2012
36 Latvia -58.58 2012
37 Moldova -70.15 2012
38 Iceland -74.66 2012

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Development Relevance: The addition of man-made greenhouse gases to the Atmosphere disturbs the earth's radiative balance. This is leading to an increase in the earth's surface temperature and to related effects on climate, sea level rise and world agriculture. Emissions of CO2 are from burning oil, coal and gas for energy use, burning wood and waste materials, and from industrial processes such as cement production. Emission intensity is the average emission rate of a given pollutant from a given source relative to the intensity of a specific activity. Emission intensities are also used to compare the environmental impact of different fuels or activities. The related terms - emission factor and carbon intensity - are often used interchangeably. The carbon dioxide emissions of a country are only an indicator of one greenhouse gas. For a more complete idea of how a country influences climate change, gases such as methane and nitrous oxide should be taken into account. This is particularly important in agricultural economies. The environmental effects of carbon dioxide are of significant interest. Carbon dioxide (CO2) makes up the largest share of the greenhouse gases contributing to global warming and climate change. Converting all other greenhouse gases (methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)) to carbon dioxide (or CO2) equivalents makes it possible to compare them and to determine their individual and total contributions to global warming. The Kyoto Protocol, an environmental agreement adopted in 1997 by many of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), is working towards curbing CO2 emissions globally.

Limitations and Exceptions: National reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that follows the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change guidelines is based on national emission inventories and covers all sources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions as well as carbon sinks (such as forests). To estimate emissions, the countries that are Parties to the Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC) use complex, state-of-the-art methodologies recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The GHG totals are expressed in CO2 equivalent using the GWP100 metric of the Second Assessment Report of IPCC and include CO2 (GWP100=1), CH4 (GWP100=21), N2O (GWP100=310) and F-gases (c-C4F8 GWP=8700, C2F6 GWP=9200, C3F8 GWP=7000, C4F10 GWP=7000, C5F12 GWP=7500, C6F14 GWP=7400, C7F16 GWP=7820, CF4 GWP=6500, HFC-125 GWP=2800, HFC-134a GWP=1300, HFC-143a GWP=3800, HFC-152a GWP=140, HFC-227ea GWP=2900, HFC-23 GWP=11700, HFC-236fa GWP=6300, HFC-245fa GWP=858, HFC-32 GWP=650, HFC-365mfc GWP=804, HFC-43-10-mee GWP=1300, SF6 GWP=23900).

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual