CO2 emissions (kg per 2011 PPP $ of GDP) - Country Ranking

Definition: Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.

Source: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, United States.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Trinidad and Tobago 1.08 2014
2 Palau 0.91 2014
3 Turkmenistan 0.87 2014
4 South Africa 0.73 2014
5 Ukraine 0.64 2014
6 Uzbekistan 0.64 2014
7 Mongolia 0.63 2014
8 Kazakhstan 0.61 2014
9 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.59 2014
10 China 0.59 2014
11 Libya 0.57 2011
12 Estonia 0.55 2014
13 Bahrain 0.53 2014
14 Kyrgyz Republic 0.52 2014
15 Iran 0.49 2014
16 Russia 0.46 2014
17 Lesotho 0.43 2014
18 Zimbabwe 0.41 2014
19 Serbia 0.40 2014
20 Saudi Arabia 0.39 2014
21 Oman 0.38 2014
22 Guyana 0.38 2014
23 Qatar 0.38 2014
24 Belarus 0.37 2014
25 United Arab Emirates 0.36 2014
26 Bulgaria 0.36 2014
27 Venezuela 0.36 2014
28 Kuwait 0.36 2014
29 Australia 0.35 2014
30 Canada 0.35 2014
31 Jordan 0.35 2014
32 Korea 0.35 2014
33 Vietnam 0.34 2014
34 Malaysia 0.33 2014
35 Iraq 0.33 2014
36 Jamaica 0.32 2014
37 India 0.32 2014
38 Nauru 0.32 2014
39 United States 0.32 2014
40 Czech Republic 0.31 2014
41 Thailand 0.31 2014
42 Kiribati 0.31 2014
43 Lebanon 0.31 2014
44 Tuvalu 0.31 2014
45 Poland 0.31 2014
46 Benin 0.31 2014
47 Bolivia 0.31 2014
48 Macedonia 0.29 2014
49 Moldova 0.29 2014
50 Brunei 0.29 2014
51 The Bahamas 0.29 2014
52 Mozambique 0.29 2014
53 Togo 0.28 2014
54 Algeria 0.28 2014
55 Georgia 0.28 2014
56 Antigua and Barbuda 0.27 2014
57 Barbados 0.27 2014
58 Senegal 0.27 2014
59 Liberia 0.26 2014
60 Djibouti 0.26 2014
61 Greece 0.26 2014
62 Japan 0.26 2014
63 Honduras 0.25 2014
64 Ecuador 0.25 2014
65 Argentina 0.25 2014
66 Israel 0.25 2014
67 Tajikistan 0.24 2014
68 Morocco 0.24 2014
69 Tunisia 0.24 2014
70 Montenegro 0.24 2014
71 Cyprus 0.24 2014
72 Armenia 0.24 2014
73 Suriname 0.24 2014
74 Azerbaijan 0.24 2014
75 Mexico 0.23 2014
76 Yemen 0.23 2014
77 Tonga 0.23 2014
78 Papua New Guinea 0.23 2014
79 New Zealand 0.22 2014
80 Egypt 0.22 2014
81 Finland 0.22 2014
82 Slovenia 0.22 2014
83 Netherlands 0.22 2014
84 Seychelles 0.21 2014
85 Chile 0.21 2014
86 Cayman Islands 0.21 2011
87 Slovak Republic 0.21 2014
88 Angola 0.21 2014
89 Vanuatu 0.21 2014
90 Timor-Leste 0.21 2014
91 São Tomé and Principe 0.20 2014
92 Germany 0.20 2014
93 Botswana 0.20 2014
94 Belgium 0.20 2014
95 Turkey 0.20 2014
96 Croatia 0.20 2014
97 St. Lucia 0.20 2014
98 Pakistan 0.20 2014
99 Grenada 0.19 2014
100 Samoa 0.19 2014
101 Luxembourg 0.19 2014
102 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 0.19 2014
103 Albania 0.18 2014
104 Mauritius 0.18 2014
105 St. Kitts and Nevis 0.18 2014
106 Mauritania 0.18 2014
107 Indonesia 0.18 2014
108 Dominica 0.18 2014
109 Romania 0.18 2014
110 Hungary 0.18 2014
111 Belize 0.18 2014
112 Bhutan 0.18 2014
113 Solomon Islands 0.17 2014
114 The Gambia 0.17 2014
115 Peru 0.17 2014
116 United Kingdom 0.17 2014
117 Malta 0.17 2014
118 Nicaragua 0.17 2014
119 Brazil 0.17 2014
120 Afghanistan 0.17 2014
121 Lithuania 0.17 2014
122 Portugal 0.17 2014
123 Gabon 0.17 2014
124 Namibia 0.16 2014
125 Dominican Republic 0.16 2014
126 Haiti 0.16 2014
127 Spain 0.16 2014
128 Guatemala 0.16 2014
129 Fiji 0.16 2014
130 Côte d'Ivoire 0.16 2014
131 Philippines 0.16 2014
132 Latvia 0.16 2014
133 Cabo Verde 0.16 2014
134 Italy 0.16 2014
135 Austria 0.16 2014
136 Bangladesh 0.15 2014
137 Equatorial Guinea 0.15 2014
138 Ireland 0.15 2014
139 Iceland 0.15 2014
140 Norway 0.15 2014
141 Comoros 0.14 2014
142 Cambodia 0.14 2014
143 Ghana 0.14 2014
144 Colombia 0.14 2014
145 Denmark 0.13 2014
146 El Salvador 0.13 2014
147 Singapore 0.13 2014
148 Nepal 0.13 2014
149 Niger 0.12 2014
150 France 0.12 2014
151 Hong Kong SAR, China 0.12 2014
152 Guinea 0.12 2014
153 Swaziland 0.12 2014
154 Congo 0.11 2014
155 Panama 0.11 2014
156 Costa Rica 0.11 2014
157 Kenya 0.11 2014
158 Guinea-Bissau 0.11 2014
159 Central African Republic 0.11 2014
160 Sierra Leone 0.11 2014
161 Burkina Faso 0.10 2014
162 Paraguay 0.10 2014
163 Sweden 0.10 2014
164 Uruguay 0.10 2014
165 Cameroon 0.10 2014
166 Sudan 0.10 2014
167 Nigeria 0.10 2014
168 Madagascar 0.10 2014
169 Tanzania 0.09 2014
170 Eritrea 0.09 2011
171 Myanmar 0.09 2014
172 Dem. Rep. Congo 0.09 2014
173 Ethiopia 0.08 2014
174 Sri Lanka 0.08 2014
175 Uganda 0.08 2014
176 Zambia 0.08 2014
177 Switzerland 0.08 2014
178 Malawi 0.07 2014
179 Lao PDR 0.06 2014
180 Burundi 0.06 2014
181 Rwanda 0.05 2014
182 Mali 0.04 2014
183 Chad 0.03 2014
184 Macao SAR, China 0.02 2014

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Development Relevance: Carbon dioxide (CO2) is naturally occurring gas fixed by photosynthesis into organic matter. A byproduct of fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, it is also emitted from land use changes and other industrial processes. It is the principal anthropogenic greenhouse gas that affects the Earth's radiative balance. It is the reference gas against which other greenhouse gases are measured, thus having a Global Warming Potential of 1. Emission intensity is the average emission rate of a given pollutant from a given source relative to the intensity of a specific activity. Emission intensities are also used to compare the environmental impact of different fuels or activities. The related terms - emission factor and carbon intensity - are often used interchangeably. Burning of carbon-based fuels since the industrial revolution has rapidly increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide, increasing the rate of global warming and causing anthropogenic climate change. It is also a major source of ocean acidification since it dissolves in water to form carbonic acid. The addition of man-made greenhouse gases to the Atmosphere disturbs the earth's radiative balance. This is leading to an increase in the earth's surface temperature and to related effects on climate, sea level rise and world agriculture. Emissions of CO2 are from burning oil, coal and gas for energy use, burning wood and waste materials, and from industrial processes such as cement production. The carbon dioxide emissions of a country are only an indicator of one greenhouse gas. For a more complete idea of how a country influences climate change, gases such as methane and nitrous oxide should be taken into account. This is particularly important in agricultural economies. The environmental effects of carbon dioxide are of significant interest. Carbon dioxide (CO2) makes up the largest share of the greenhouse gases contributing to global warming and climate change. Converting all other greenhouse gases (methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)) to carbon dioxide (or CO2) equivalents makes it possible to compare them and to determine their individual and total contributions to global warming. The Kyoto Protocol, an environmental agreement adopted in 1997 by many of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), is working towards curbing CO2 emissions globally.

Limitations and Exceptions: The U.S. Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) calculates annual anthropogenic emissions from data on fossil fuel consumption (from the United Nations Statistics Division's World Energy Data Set) and world cement manufacturing (from the U.S. Department of Interior's Geological Survey, USGS 2011). Although estimates of global carbon dioxide emissions are probably accurate within 10 percent (as calculated from global average fuel chemistry and use), country estimates may have larger error bounds. Trends estimated from a consistent time series tend to be more accurate than individual values. Each year the CDIAC recalculates the entire time series since 1949, incorporating recent findings and corrections. Estimates exclude fuels supplied to ships and aircraft in international transport because of the difficulty of apportioning the fuels among benefiting countries. Data for carbon dioxide emissions include gases from the burning of fossil fuels and cement manufacture, but excludes emissions from land use such as deforestation.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Carbon dioxide emissions, largely by-products of energy production and use, account for the largest share of greenhouse gases, which are associated with global warming. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions result primarily from fossil fuel combustion and cement manufacturing. In combustion different fossil fuels release different amounts of carbon dioxide for the same level of energy use: oil releases about 50 percent more carbon dioxide than natural gas, and coal releases about twice as much. Cement manufacturing releases about half a metric ton of carbon dioxide for each metric ton of cement produced. Carbon dioxide emissions are often calculated and reported as elemental carbon. The values were converted to actual carbon dioxide mass by multiplying them by 3.667 (the ratio of the mass of carbon to that of carbon dioxide).

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Base Period: 2011

Periodicity: Annual