Net ODA received (% of central government expense) - Country Ranking

Definition: Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent).

Source: Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Geographical Distribution of Financial Flows to Developing Countries, Development Co-operation Report, and International Development Statistics database. Data

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Belarus 6,590.54 2015
2 Dem. Rep. Congo 193.02 2010
3 Sierra Leone 154.87 2014
4 Burundi 133.96 2013
5 São Tomé and Principe 110.38 2012
6 Liberia 106.00 2013
7 Ethiopia 103.27 2011
8 Malawi 88.18 2015
9 The Gambia 81.04 2009
10 Central African Republic 75.78 2011
11 Mali 74.65 2015
12 Rwanda 74.54 2015
13 Burkina Faso 63.88 2015
14 Mozambique 58.62 2012
15 Kiribati 57.73 2015
16 Benin 56.48 2013
17 Vanuatu 52.19 2011
18 Madagascar 51.34 2014
19 Cabo Verde 50.60 2009
20 Solomon Islands 47.37 2015
21 Uganda 46.60 2015
22 Samoa 43.13 2015
23 Kyrgyz Republic 42.27 2015
24 Nepal 35.67 2015
25 Cambodia 32.34 2015
26 Lesotho 31.56 2013
27 Tanzania 29.69 2014
28 Zimbabwe 28.95 2012
29 Zambia 28.50 2011
30 Senegal 27.53 2015
31 Ghana 25.72 2010
32 Bhutan 25.03 2015
33 Nicaragua 22.36 2015
34 Lao PDR 21.98 2015
35 Grenada 21.82 2014
36 Côte d'Ivoire 20.55 2014
37 Togo 18.81 2015
38 Timor-Leste 18.22 2015
39 Kenya 17.03 2015
40 Bolivia 16.63 2007
41 St. Kitts and Nevis 16.52 2013
42 Mongolia 14.75 2013
43 Bangladesh 14.63 2015
44 Moldova 14.15 2015
45 Papua New Guinea 13.42 2015
46 Jordan 13.36 2013
47 Armenia 13.14 2015
48 Dominica 12.65 2014
49 Georgia 12.45 2015
50 Palau 12.20 2015
51 Albania 12.01 2015
52 Honduras 11.65 2015
53 Vietnam 11.07 2013
54 Nigeria 9.71 2013
55 Pakistan 9.30 2011
56 Belize 9.07 2014
57 Fiji 8.92 2013
58 Lebanon 8.53 2015
59 Swaziland 8.21 2012
60 Guatemala 7.19 2013
61 Serbia 6.81 2012
62 Congo 6.57 2012
63 Tunisia 6.40 2012
64 St. Lucia 6.11 2014
65 Bosnia and Herzegovina 5.93 2015
66 Egypt 5.93 2013
67 Mauritius 5.60 2015
68 Macedonia 5.16 2012
69 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 5.15 2014
70 Israel 4.84 1996
71 Equatorial Guinea 4.46 2009
72 Morocco 4.37 2011
73 Ukraine 4.29 2015
74 Suriname 3.62 2012
75 Uzbekistan 3.45 2015
76 Namibia 3.30 2015
77 Iraq 3.29 2015
78 Sri Lanka 2.94 2015
79 Dominican Republic 2.57 2015
80 Bahrain 2.29 2004
81 Botswana 2.20 2014
82 Seychelles 1.69 2015
83 Colombia 1.67 2015
84 El Salvador 1.65 2015
85 Angola 1.57 2015
86 Jamaica 1.55 2015
87 Syrian Arab Republic 1.29 2007
88 South Africa 1.26 2015
89 Philippines 1.25 2015
90 Barbados 1.04 2010
91 Paraguay 0.96 2015
92 Antigua and Barbuda 0.96 2014
93 Peru 0.85 2015
94 Turkey 0.83 2015
95 India 0.80 2013
96 The Bahamas 0.72 1995
97 Costa Rica 0.67 2015
98 Croatia 0.59 2010
99 Slovenia 0.55 2002
100 Azerbaijan 0.53 2015
101 Cyprus 0.47 1996
102 Uruguay 0.46 2014
103 Algeria 0.33 2011
104 Kazakhstan 0.29 2015
105 Malta 0.27 2002
106 Singapore 0.16 1995
107 Brazil 0.15 2015
108 Mexico 0.12 2015
109 Iran 0.11 2009
110 Chile 0.10 2015
111 Thailand 0.08 2015
112 Trinidad and Tobago 0.06 2010
113 Kuwait 0.03 1995
114 Macao SAR, China 0.03 1999
115 Malaysia 0.00 2015
116 Argentina -0.02 2015
117 Indonesia -0.03 2015
118 Korea -0.07 1999
119 Oman -0.16 2010

More rankings: Africa | Asia | Central America & the Caribbean | Europe | Middle East | North America | Oceania | South America | World |

Development Relevance: Ratio of aid to central government expense provides measures of recipient country's dependency on aid. Ratios of aid are generally much higher in Sub-Saharan Africa than in other regions, and they increased in the 1980s. High ratios are due only in part to aid flows. Many African countries saw severe erosion in their terms of trade in the 1980salong with weak policies, falling incomes, imports, and investment. Thus the increase in aid dependency ratios reflects events affecting both the numerator (aid) and the denominator (central government expense). DAC exists to help its members coordinate their development assistance and to encourage the expansion and improve the effectiveness of the aggregate resources flowing to recipient economies. In this capacity DAC monitors the flow of all financial resources, but its main concern is official development assistance (ODA). Grants or loans to countries and territories on the DAC list of aid recipients have to meet three criteria to be counted as ODA. They are provided by official agencies, including state and local governments, or by their executive agencies. They promote economic development and welfare as the main objective. And they are provided on concessional financial terms (loans must have a grant element of at least 25 percent, calculated at a discount rate of 10 percent). The DAC Statistical Reporting Directives provide the most detailed explanation of this definition and all ODA-related rules. DAC statistics aim to meet the needs of policy makers in the field of development co-operation, and to provide a means of assessing the comparative performance of aid donors. DAC statistics are used extensively in the Peer Reviews conducted for each DAC member every four to five years, and have a wide range of other applications. They are used to measure donors' compliance with various international recommendations in the field of development co-operation (terms, volume), and are indispensable for analysis of virtually every aspect of development and development co-operation. From 1960 to 1990, official development assistance (ODA) flows from DAC countries to developing countries rose steadily, but then fell sharply in the 1990s. Since then, a series of high-profile international conferences have boosted ODA flows. In the mid-2000s, ODA once again rose due to exceptional debt relief operations for Iraq and Nigeria. Despite the recent financial crisis, ODA flows have continued to rise and in the early 2010s reached their highest real level ever at about US $130 billion. This demonstrates effectiveness of aid pledges, especially when they are made on the basis of adequate resources and backed by strong political will.

Limitations and Exceptions: Data on ODA is for aid-receiving countries. The data cover loans and grants from DAC member countries, multilateral organizations, and non-DAC donors. They do not reflect aid given by recipient countries to other developing countries. As a result, some countries that are net donors are shown as aid recipients. The indicator does not distinguish types of aid (program, project, or food aid; emergency assistance; or post-conflict peacekeeping assistance), which may have different effects on the economy. Ratio of aid to central government expense provides measures of recipient country's dependency on aid. But care must be taken in drawing policy conclusions. For foreign policy reasons some countries have traditionally received large amounts of aid. Thus aid dependency ratio may reveal as much about a donor's interests as about a recipient's needs. The nominal values used here may overstate the real value of aid to recipients. Changes in international prices and exchange rates can reduce the purchasing power of aid. Tying aid, still prevalent though declining in importance, also tends to reduce its purchasing power. Tying requires recipients to purchase goods and services from the donor country or from a specified group of countries. Such arrangements prevent a recipient from misappropriating or mismanaging aid receipts, but they may also be motivated by a desire to benefit donor country suppliers. Because the indicator relies on information from donors, it is not necessarily consistent with information recorded by recipients in the balance of payments, which often excludes all or some technical assistance - particularly payments to expatriates made directly by the donor. Similarly, grant commodity aid may not always be recorded in trade data or in the balance of payments. Moreover, DAC statistics exclude aid for military and antiterrorism purposes. The aggregates refer to World Bank classifications of economies and therefore may differ from those of the OECD.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent). Central government expense is cash payments for operating activities of the government in providing goods and services. It includes compensation of employees (such as wages and salaries), interest and subsidies, grants, social benefits, and other expenses such as rent and dividends. The flows of official and private financial resources from the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to developing economies are compiled by DAC, based principally on reporting by DAC members using standard questionnaires issued by the DAC Secretariat. The ODA excludes nonconcessional flows from official creditors, which are classified as "other official flows," and aid for military and anti-terrorism purposes. Transfer payments to private individuals, such as pensions, reparations, and insurance payouts, are in general not counted. In addition to financial flows, ODA includes technical cooperation, most expenditures for peacekeeping under UN mandates and assistance to refugees, contributions to multilateral institutions such as the United Nations and its specialized agencies, and concessional funding to multilateral development banks. Flows are transfers of resources, either in cash or in the form of commodities or services measured on a cash basis. Short-term capital transactions (with one year or less maturity) are not counted. Repayments of the principal (but not interest) of ODA loans are recorded as negative flows. Proceeds from official equity investments in a developing country are reported as ODA, while proceeds from their later sale are recorded as negative flows. The official development assistance estimates are published annually at the end of the calendar year in International Development Statistics (IDS) database. Net ODA received as a percent of central government expense is calculated using values in U.S. dollars converted using the DEC alternative conversion factor which is the underlying annual exchange rate used for the World Bank Atlas method.

Periodicity: Annual