Net ODA received (% of GNI) - Country Ranking

Definition: Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent).

Source: Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Geographical Distribution of Financial Flows to Developing Countries, Development Co-operation Report, and International Development Statistics database. Data

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Tuvalu 45.63 2017
2 Somalia 39.33 2017
3 Malawi 24.13 2017
4 Central African Republic 23.37 2017
5 Kiribati 21.20 2017
6 Liberia 20.84 2017
7 Afghanistan 18.75 2017
8 Tonga 18.38 2017
9 The Gambia 18.26 2017
10 Nauru 17.77 2017
11 Samoa 16.09 2017
12 Vanuatu 15.21 2017
13 Niger 15.19 2017
14 Solomon Islands 14.99 2017
15 Sierra Leone 14.81 2017
16 Mozambique 13.84 2017
17 Rwanda 13.71 2017
18 Burundi 13.53 2017
19 Haiti 11.58 2017
20 São Tomé and Principe 10.77 2017
21 New Caledonia 10.29 1999
22 Timor-Leste 10.24 2017
23 Mali 9.14 2017
24 Guinea-Bissau 8.40 2017
25 Uganda 7.94 2017
26 Mongolia 7.78 2017
27 Burkina Faso 7.43 2017
28 Palau 7.36 2017
29 Benin 7.34 2017
30 Togo 7.23 2017
31 Jordan 7.21 2017
32 Cabo Verde 7.20 2017
33 Chad 6.58 2017
34 Kyrgyz Republic 6.29 2017
35 Comoros 6.18 2017
36 Dem. Rep. Congo 6.17 2017
37 Madagascar 6.08 2017
38 Mauritania 5.91 2017
39 Eritrea 5.16 2011
40 Bhutan 5.12 2017
41 Lesotho 5.09 2017
42 Ethiopia 5.07 2017
43 Tanzania 4.96 2017
44 Nepal 4.94 2017
45 Djibouti 4.64 2017
46 Guinea 4.45 2017
47 Senegal 4.44 2017
48 Nicaragua 4.17 2017
49 Zambia 4.14 2017
50 Serbia 4.09 2017
51 Cambodia 4.05 2017
52 Tajikistan 3.68 2017
53 St. Kitts and Nevis 3.64 2013
54 Cameroon 3.54 2017
55 Zimbabwe 3.48 2017
56 Eswatini 3.36 2017
57 Dominica 3.34 2017
58 Kenya 3.17 2017
59 Lao PDR 2.98 2017
60 Cuba 2.97 2016
61 Fiji 2.90 2017
62 Georgia 2.89 2017
63 Yemen 2.87 2014
64 Bolivia 2.60 2017
65 Lebanon 2.45 2017
66 Bosnia and Herzegovina 2.45 2017
67 Papua New Guinea 2.39 2017
68 Myanmar 2.38 2017
69 Montenegro 2.38 2017
70 Moldova 2.36 2017
71 Côte d'Ivoire 2.27 2017
72 Ghana 2.19 2017
73 Armenia 2.14 2017
74 Israel 2.08 1996
75 Honduras 2.06 2017
76 Belize 2.03 2017
77 Tunisia 2.01 2017
78 Morocco 1.75 2017
79 Iraq 1.50 2017
80 Guyana 1.47 2017
81 Bangladesh 1.44 2017
82 Namibia 1.42 2017
83 North Macedonia 1.38 2017
84 Congo 1.37 2017
85 Seychelles 1.36 2017
86 Albania 1.20 2017
87 Vietnam 1.15 2017
88 Libya 1.10 2017
89 Ukraine 1.07 2017
90 Uzbekistan 1.06 2017
91 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 0.93 2017
92 Nigeria 0.92 2017
93 Gabon 0.76 2017
94 Suriname 0.75 2017
95 Sudan 0.75 2017
96 St. Lucia 0.74 2017
97 Pakistan 0.71 2017
98 Antigua and Barbuda 0.71 2017
99 El Salvador 0.64 2017
100 Botswana 0.61 2017
101 Grenada 0.57 2017
102 Guatemala 0.49 2017
103 Bahrain 0.46 2004
104 Jamaica 0.41 2017
105 Paraguay 0.38 2017
106 Turkey 0.37 2017
107 Barbados 0.37 2010
108 Sri Lanka 0.35 2017
109 South Africa 0.30 2017
110 Azerbaijan 0.30 2017
111 Colombia 0.28 2017
112 Cyprus 0.24 1996
113 Malta 0.23 2002
114 Croatia 0.23 2010
115 Slovenia 0.23 2002
116 Syrian Arab Republic 0.21 2007
117 Ecuador 0.20 2017
118 Angola 0.19 2017
119 Costa Rica 0.18 2017
120 Dominican Republic 0.15 2017
121 India 0.12 2017
122 Algeria 0.11 2017
123 The Bahamas 0.11 1995
124 Brunei 0.09 1995
125 Mauritius 0.08 2017
126 Turkmenistan 0.08 2017
127 Uruguay 0.08 2017
128 Panama 0.07 2017
129 Equatorial Guinea 0.07 2017
130 Mexico 0.07 2017
131 Thailand 0.06 2017
132 Qatar 0.04 1995
133 Philippines 0.04 2017
134 Kazakhstan 0.04 2017
135 Iran 0.03 2017
136 Chile 0.03 2017
137 Indonesia 0.02 2017
138 Trinidad and Tobago 0.02 2010
139 Singapore 0.02 1995
140 Kuwait 0.01 1995
141 Brazil 0.01 2017
142 Venezuela 0.01 2014
143 Hong Kong SAR, China 0.01 1996
144 Macao SAR, China 0.01 1999
145 Argentina 0.00 2017
146 Peru 0.00 2017
147 China -0.01 2017
148 Malaysia -0.01 2017
149 Korea -0.01 1999
150 Saudi Arabia -0.03 2007
151 Oman -0.04 2010
152 Egypt -0.05 2017
153 Belarus -0.48 2017

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Development Relevance: The ratio of aid to GNI provides a measure of recipient country's dependency on aid. Ratios of aid are generally much higher in Sub-Saharan Africa than in other regions, and they increased in the 1980s. High ratios are due only in part to aid flows. Many African countries saw severe erosion in their terms of trade in the 1980s, along with weak policies, falling incomes, imports, and investment. Thus the increase in aid dependency ratios reflects events affecting both the numerator (aid) and the denominator (GNI). DAC exists to help its members coordinate their development assistance and to encourage the expansion and improve the effectiveness of the aggregate resources flowing to recipient economies. In this capacity DAC monitors the flow of all financial resources, but its main concern is official development assistance (ODA). Grants or loans to countries and territories on the DAC list of aid recipients have to meet three criteria to be counted as ODA. They are provided by official agencies, including state and local governments, or by their executive agencies. They promote economic development and welfare as the main objective. And they are provided on concessional financial terms (loans must have a grant element of at least 25 percent, calculated at a discount rate of 10 percent). The DAC Statistical Reporting Directives provide the most detailed explanation of this definition and all ODA-related rules. DAC statistics aim to meet the needs of policy makers in the field of development co-operation, and to provide a means of assessing the comparative performance of aid donors. DAC statistics are used extensively in the Peer Reviews conducted for each DAC member every four to five years, and have a wide range of other applications. They are used to measure donors' compliance with various international recommendations in the field of development co-operation (terms, volume), and are indispensable for analysis of virtually every aspect of development and development co-operation. From 1960 to 1990, official development assistance (ODA) flows from DAC countries to developing countries rose steadily, but then fell sharply in the 1990s. Since then, a series of high-profile international conferences have boosted ODA flows. In the mid-2000s, ODA once again rose due to exceptional debt relief operations for Iraq and Nigeria. Despite the recent financial crisis, ODA flows have continued to rise and in the early 2010s reached their highest real level ever at about US $130 billion. This demonstrates effectiveness of aid pledges, especially when they are made on the basis of adequate resources and backed by strong political will.

Limitations and Exceptions: Data on ODA is for aid-receiving countries. The data cover loans and grants from DAC member countries, multilateral organizations, and non-DAC donors. They do not reflect aid given by recipient countries to other developing countries. As a result, some countries that are net donors are shown as aid recipients. The indicator does not distinguish types of aid (program, project, or food aid; emergency assistance; or post-conflict peacekeeping assistance), which may have different effects on the economy. Ratio of aid to gross national income (GNI) provides measures of recipient country's dependency on aid. But care must be taken in drawing policy conclusions. For foreign policy reasons some countries have traditionally received large amounts of aid. Thus aid dependency ratio may reveal as much about a donor's interests as about a recipient's needs. Because the indicator relies on information from donors, it is not necessarily consistent with information recorded by recipients in the balance of payments, which often excludes all or some technical assistance - particularly payments to expatriates made directly by the donor. Similarly, grant commodity aid may not always be recorded in trade data or in the balance of payments. Moreover, DAC statistics exclude aid for military and antiterrorism purposes. The aggregates refer to World Bank classifications of economies and therefore may differ from those of the OECD.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The ODA excludes nonconcessional flows from official creditors, which are classified as "other official flows," and aid for military and anti-terrorism purposes. Transfer payments to private individuals, such as pensions, reparations, and insurance payouts, are in general not counted. In addition to financial flows, ODA includes technical cooperation, most expenditures for peacekeeping under UN mandates and assistance to refugees, contributions to multilateral institutions such as the United Nations and its specialized agencies, and concessional funding to multilateral development banks. The flows of official and private financial resources from the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to developing economies are compiled by DAC, based principally on reporting by DAC members using standard questionnaires issued by the DAC Secretariat. The ODA excludes nonconcessional flows from official creditors, which are classified as "other official flows," and aid for military and anti-terrorism purposes. Transfer payments to private individuals, such as pensions, reparations, and insurance payouts, are in general not counted. In addition to financial flows, ODA includes technical cooperation, most expenditures for peacekeeping under UN mandates and assistance to refugees, contributions to multilateral institutions such as the United Nations and its specialized agencies, and concessional funding to multilateral development banks. Flows are transfers of resources, either in cash or in the form of commodities or services measured on a cash basis. Short-term capital transactions (with one year or less maturity) are not counted. Repayments of the principal (but not interest) of ODA loans are recorded as negative flows. Proceeds from official equity investments in a developing country are reported as ODA, while proceeds from their later sale are recorded as negative flows. The official development assistance estimates are published annually at the end of the calendar year in International Development Statistics (IDS) database. Net ODA received as a percent of GNI is calculated using values in U.S. dollars converted at official exchange rates.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual