Net ODA received (% of gross capital formation) - Country Ranking

Definition: Net official development assistance (ODA) consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent).

Source: Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Geographical Distribution of Financial Flows to Developing Countries, Development Co-operation Report, and International Development Statistics database. Data

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Solomon Islands 306.96 2006
2 Liberia 266.94 2015
3 Yemen 228.14 2015
4 Central African Republic 220.83 2015
5 Guinea-Bissau 218.39 2015
6 Malawi 151.60 2015
7 Sierra Leone 144.46 2015
8 Kiribati 138.99 1992
9 Afghanistan 113.90 2015
10 Burundi 72.10 2015
11 Comoros 63.20 2015
12 The Gambia 60.32 2015
13 Madagascar 53.21 2015
14 Mali 52.64 2015
15 Eritrea 51.17 2011
16 Tonga 49.59 2012
17 Rwanda 49.39 2015
18 Vanuatu 46.62 2014
19 Zimbabwe 39.34 2015
20 Burkina Faso 39.33 2015
21 New Caledonia 38.08 1990
22 Dem. Rep. Congo 37.02 2015
23 Haiti 36.89 2015
24 Timor-Leste 36.55 2015
25 Djibouti 35.45 2007
26 Papua New Guinea 34.24 2004
27 Cabo Verde 33.65 2014
28 Guinea 33.62 2005
29 Kyrgyz Republic 33.21 2015
30 Niger 30.99 2015
31 Mozambique 27.06 2015
32 Senegal 25.70 2015
33 Uganda 24.44 2015
34 Tajikistan 24.04 2013
35 Togo 23.55 2015
36 Palau 22.54 2015
37 Moldova 21.16 2015
38 Tanzania 20.79 2015
39 Swaziland 20.14 2015
40 Benin 19.98 2015
41 Chad 19.47 2015
42 Ghana 19.12 2015
43 Kenya 17.97 2015
44 Cambodia 16.71 2015
45 Armenia 15.89 2015
46 Nepal 14.54 2015
47 Fiji 13.13 2015
48 Ethiopia 12.33 2015
49 Montenegro 12.27 2015
50 Mauritania 11.99 2015
51 Jordan 11.82 2009
52 Bolivia 11.75 2015
53 Bosnia and Herzegovina 11.74 2015
54 Lesotho 11.53 2015
55 Albania 11.15 2015
56 Nicaragua 10.94 2015
57 Honduras 10.38 2015
58 Georgia 10.15 2015
59 Ukraine 10.05 2015
60 Lao PDR 9.97 2015
61 Côte d'Ivoire 9.81 2015
62 Cameroon 9.58 2015
63 Lebanon 9.23 2015
64 Pakistan 8.92 2015
65 Zambia 8.80 2015
66 Bhutan 8.75 2015
67 Israel 7.79 1996
68 Mongolia 7.59 2015
69 Belize 6.91 2015
70 Macedonia 6.86 2015
71 Cuba 6.77 2015
72 Vietnam 5.90 2015
73 Myanmar 5.60 2015
74 Sudan 5.59 2015
75 Tunisia 5.41 2015
76 Egypt 5.23 2015
77 Guatemala 4.70 2015
78 Bangladesh 4.56 2015
79 Serbia 4.46 2015
80 Morocco 4.39 2015
81 Guyana 4.14 2015
82 St. Lucia 3.93 2015
83 Angola 3.86 2015
84 Mauritius 3.62 2015
85 Namibia 3.56 2015
86 Iraq 3.39 2015
87 Nigeria 3.26 2015
88 Uzbekistan 2.82 2015
89 Barbados 2.80 2010
90 Congo 2.54 2015
91 El Salvador 2.44 2015
92 Gabon 2.25 2015
93 South Africa 2.16 2015
94 Bahrain 2.16 2004
95 Jamaica 1.88 2015
96 Sri Lanka 1.86 2015
97 Dominican Republic 1.74 2015
98 Colombia 1.73 2015
99 Malta 1.50 2002
100 Botswana 1.42 2015
101 Seychelles 1.40 2015
102 Paraguay 1.22 2015
103 Ecuador 1.17 2015
104 Croatia 1.03 2010
105 Costa Rica 0.98 2015
106 Cyprus 0.93 1996
107 Slovenia 0.88 2002
108 Turkey 0.88 2015
109 Philippines 0.83 2015
110 Syrian Arab Republic 0.75 2007
111 Peru 0.73 2015
112 Belarus 0.64 2015
113 Suriname 0.47 2015
114 Azerbaijan 0.47 2015
115 India 0.46 2015
116 The Bahamas 0.45 1995
117 Brazil 0.31 2015
118 Libya 0.29 2008
119 Equatorial Guinea 0.28 2015
120 Brunei 0.25 1995
121 Turkmenistan 0.23 2012
122 Uruguay 0.18 2015
123 Kazakhstan 0.16 2015
124 Trinidad and Tobago 0.15 2010
125 Qatar 0.13 1995
126 Mexico 0.12 2015
127 Kuwait 0.11 1995
128 Algeria 0.10 2015
129 Chile 0.09 2015
130 Iran 0.08 2015
131 Thailand 0.07 2015
132 Singapore 0.06 1995
133 Panama 0.04 2015
134 Venezuela 0.04 2014
135 Macao SAR, China 0.03 1999
136 Hong Kong SAR, China 0.03 1996
137 Malaysia 0.00 2015
138 China -0.01 2015
139 Indonesia -0.01 2015
140 Argentina -0.02 2015
141 Korea -0.04 1999
142 Saudi Arabia -0.12 2007
143 Oman -0.14 2010

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Development Relevance: The ratio of aid to gross capital formation provides a measure of recipient country's dependency on aid. Ratios of aid are generally much higher in Sub-Saharan Africa than in other regions, particularly in the 1980s. High ratios are due only in part to aid flows. Many African countries saw severe erosion in their terms of trade in the 1980s, along with weak policies, falling incomes, imports, and investment. Thus the increase in aid dependency ratios reflects events affecting both the numerator (aid) and the denominator (gross capital formation). DAC exists to help its members coordinate their development assistance and to encourage the expansion and improve the effectiveness of the aggregate resources flowing to recipient economies. In this capacity DAC monitors the flow of all financial resources, but its main concern is official development assistance (ODA). Grants or loans to countries and territories on the DAC list of aid recipients have to meet three criteria to be counted as ODA. They are provided by official agencies, including state and local governments, or by their executive agencies. They promote economic development and welfare as the main objective. And they are provided on concessional financial terms (loans must have a grant element of at least 25 percent, calculated at a discount rate of 10 percent). The DAC Statistical Reporting Directives provide the most detailed explanation of this definition and all ODA-related rules. DAC statistics aim to meet the needs of policy makers in the field of development co-operation, and to provide a means of assessing the comparative performance of aid donors. DAC statistics are used extensively in the Peer Reviews conducted for each DAC member every four to five years, and have a wide range of other applications. They are used to measure donors' compliance with various international recommendations in the field of development co-operation (terms, volume), and are indispensable for analysis of virtually every aspect of development and development co-operation. From 1960 to 1990, official development assistance (ODA) flows from DAC countries to developing countries rose steadily, but then fell sharply in the 1990s. Since then, a series of high-profile international conferences have boosted ODA flows. In the mid-2000s, ODA once again rose due to exceptional debt relief operations for Iraq and Nigeria. Despite the recent financial crisis, ODA flows have continued to rise and in the early 2010s reached their highest real level ever at about US $130 billion. This demonstrates effectiveness of aid pledges, especially when they are made on the basis of adequate resources and backed by strong political will.

Limitations and Exceptions: Data on ODA is for aid-receiving countries. The data cover loans and grants from DAC member countries, multilateral organizations, and non-DAC donors. They do not reflect aid given by recipient countries to other developing countries. As a result, some countries that are net donors are shown as aid recipients. The indicator does not distinguish types of aid (program, project, or food aid; emergency assistance; or post-conflict peacekeeping assistance), which may have different effects on the economy. Ratio of aid to gross capital formation provides measures of recipient country's dependency on aid. But care must be taken in drawing policy conclusions. For foreign policy reasons some countries have traditionally received large amounts of aid. Thus aid dependency ratio may reveal as much about a donor's interests as about a recipient's needs. The quality of data on government fixed capital formation depends on the quality of government accounting systems which tend to be weak in developing countries. Measures of fixed capital formation by households and corporations - particularly capital outlays by small, unincorporated enterprises - are usually unreliable. Estimates of changes in inventories are rarely complete but usually include the most important activities of commodities. Because the indicator relies on information from donors, it is not necessarily consistent with information recorded by recipients in the balance of payments, which often excludes all or some technical assistance - particularly payments to expatriates made directly by the donor. Similarly, grant commodity aid may not always be recorded in trade data or in the balance of payments. Moreover, DAC statistics exclude aid for military and antiterrorism purposes. The aggregates refer to World Bank classifications of economies and therefore may differ from those of the OECD.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Net official development assistance (ODA) per capita consists of disbursements of loans made on concessional terms (net of repayments of principal) and grants by official agencies of the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC), by multilateral institutions, and by non-DAC countries to promote economic development and welfare in countries and territories in the DAC list of ODA recipients. It includes loans with a grant element of at least 25 percent (calculated at a rate of discount of 10 percent).Gross capital formation consists of outlays on additions to the conomy's fixed assets plus net changes in the level of inventories. It is generally obtained from industry reports of acquisitions and distinguishes only the broad categories of capital formation. Data on capital formation may be estimated from direct surveys of enterprises and administrative records or based on the commodity flow methods using data from production, trade and construction activities. The flows of official and private financial resources from the members of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to developing economies are compiled by DAC, based principally on reporting by DAC members using standard questionnaires issued by the DAC Secretariat. The ODA excludes nonconcessional flows from official creditors, which are classified as "other official flows," and aid for military and anti-terrorism purposes. Transfer payments to private individuals, such as pensions, reparations, and insurance payouts, are in general not counted. In addition to financial flows, ODA includes technical cooperation, most expenditures for peacekeeping under UN mandates and assistance to refugees, contributions to multilateral institutions such as the United Nations and its specialized agencies, and concessional funding to multilateral development banks. Flows are transfers of resources, either in cash or in the form of commodities or services measured on a cash basis. Short-term capital transactions (with one year or less maturity) are not counted. Repayments of the principal (but not interest) of ODA loans are recorded as negative flows. Proceeds from official equity investments in a developing country are reported as ODA, while proceeds from their later sale are recorded as negative flows. The official development assistance estimates are published annually at the end of the calendar year in International Development Statistics (IDS) database. Net ODA received as a percent of gross capital formation is calculated using values in U.S. dollars converted at official exchange rates.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual