Personal remittances, received (current US$) - Country Ranking

Definition: Personal remittances comprise personal transfers and compensation of employees. Personal transfers consist of all current transfers in cash or in kind made or received by resident households to or from nonresident households. Personal transfers thus include all current transfers between resident and nonresident individuals. Compensation of employees refers to the income of border, seasonal, and other short-term workers who are employed in an economy where they are not resident and of residents employed by nonresident entities. Data are the sum of two items defined in the sixth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual: personal transfers and compensation of employees. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

Source: World Bank staff estimates based on IMF balance of payments data.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 India 62,744,360,000.00 2016
2 China 35,225,580,000.00 2016
3 Philippines 31,144,630,000.00 2016
4 Mexico 28,690,960,000.00 2016
5 France 24,373,080,000.00 2016
6 Pakistan 19,761,000,000.00 2016
7 Nigeria 19,635,570,000.00 2016
8 Germany 16,683,180,000.00 2016
9 Egypt 16,590,000,000.00 2016
10 Bangladesh 13,529,140,000.00 2016
11 Vietnam 11,880,000,000.00 2016
12 Belgium 10,125,720,000.00 2016
13 Italy 9,536,622,000.00 2016
14 Indonesia 8,891,261,000.00 2016
15 Lebanon 7,615,622,000.00 2016
16 Guatemala 7,471,400,000.00 2016
17 Sri Lanka 7,257,361,000.00 2016
18 Morocco 7,087,744,000.00 2016
19 Poland 6,712,000,000.00 2016
20 Russia 6,678,020,000.00 2016
21 Nepal 6,611,838,000.00 2016
22 United States 6,547,000,000.00 2016
23 Korea 6,393,400,000.00 2016
24 Thailand 6,270,020,000.00 2016
25 Ukraine 6,146,000,000.00 2016
26 Dominican Republic 5,509,000,000.00 2016
27 Colombia 4,902,694,000.00 2016
28 Hungary 4,659,762,000.00 2016
29 El Salvador 4,593,757,000.00 2016
30 United Kingdom 4,583,714,000.00 2016
31 Jordan 4,374,648,000.00 2016
32 Honduras 3,863,740,000.00 2016
33 Japan 3,818,909,000.00 2016
34 Romania 3,484,233,000.00 2016
35 Yemen 3,350,500,000.00 2016
36 Serbia 3,204,755,000.00 2016
37 Czech Republic 3,126,388,000.00 2016
38 Ghana 2,979,934,000.00 2016
39 Austria 2,909,170,000.00 2016
40 Peru 2,883,887,000.00 2016
41 Sweden 2,854,534,000.00 2016
42 Brazil 2,739,786,000.00 2016
43 Spain 2,629,530,000.00 2016
44 Ecuador 2,612,079,000.00 2016
45 Switzerland 2,497,519,000.00 2016
46 Uzbekistan 2,479,000,000.00 2016
47 Jamaica 2,433,423,000.00 2016
48 Haiti 2,358,653,000.00 2016
49 Croatia 2,189,505,000.00 2016
50 Slovak Republic 2,119,405,000.00 2016
51 Australia 2,050,854,000.00 2016
52 Senegal 2,015,863,000.00 2016
53 Kyrgyz Republic 1,994,608,000.00 2016
54 Tajikistan 1,867,399,000.00 2016
55 Zimbabwe 1,856,035,000.00 2016
56 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1,845,995,000.00 2016
57 Tunisia 1,821,247,000.00 2016
58 Kenya 1,744,639,000.00 2016
59 Luxembourg 1,716,944,000.00 2016
60 Bulgaria 1,665,570,000.00 2016
61 Syrian Arab Republic 1,622,539,000.00 2016
62 Malaysia 1,584,900,000.00 2016
63 Georgia 1,520,785,000.00 2016
64 Moldova 1,464,220,000.00 2016
65 Armenia 1,382,331,000.00 2016
66 Canada 1,343,333,000.00 2016
67 Netherlands 1,334,838,000.00 2016
68 Iran 1,330,000,000.00 2016
69 Lithuania 1,279,672,000.00 2016
70 Nicaragua 1,268,100,000.00 2016
71 Denmark 1,251,615,000.00 2016
72 Latvia 1,226,058,000.00 2016
73 Bolivia 1,217,184,000.00 2016
74 Turkey 1,186,000,000.00 2016
75 Albania 1,051,220,000.00 2016
76 Uganda 1,015,710,000.00 2016
77 Iraq 986,400,000.00 2016
78 Israel 963,400,000.00 2016
79 Belarus 961,400,000.00 2016
80 Mali 936,829,700.00 2016
81 Finland 804,362,700.00 2016
82 Ethiopia 772,236,000.00 2016
83 South Africa 755,434,000.00 2016
84 New Caledonia 728,302,600.00 2016
85 Myanmar 681,772,300.00 2016
86 Paraguay 656,858,400.00 2016
87 Azerbaijan 643,148,000.00 2016
88 Ireland 594,067,900.00 2016
89 Norway 593,573,600.00 2016
90 Liberia 548,783,600.00 2016
91 Costa Rica 545,423,700.00 2016
92 Argentina 538,999,400.00 2016
93 Panama 502,200,000.00 2016
94 Estonia 478,676,400.00 2016
95 Afghanistan 430,839,200.00 2016
96 New Zealand 420,131,400.00 2016
97 Tanzania 411,226,400.00 2016
98 Burkina Faso 405,675,400.00 2016
99 Hong Kong SAR, China 399,492,900.00 2016
100 Montenegro 396,160,100.00 2016
101 Portugal 384,792,000.00 2016
102 Qatar 378,571,400.00 2016
103 Cambodia 370,593,200.00 2016
104 Slovenia 364,305,400.00 2016
105 Togo 351,233,300.00 2016
106 Lesotho 343,655,800.00 2016
107 Côte d'Ivoire 341,963,000.00 2016
108 Greece 331,496,500.00 2016
109 Cyprus 327,087,600.00 2016
110 Saudi Arabia 307,548,500.00 2016
111 Guyana 293,505,500.00 2016
112 Macedonia 290,838,000.00 2016
113 Venezuela 279,000,000.00 2016
114 Algeria 277,355,500.00 2016
115 Kazakhstan 275,390,900.00 2016
116 Mongolia 259,876,400.00 2016
117 Madagascar 250,466,300.00 2016
118 Cameroon 241,609,800.00 2016
119 Malta 218,760,800.00 2016
120 Cabo Verde 212,065,100.00 2016
121 The Gambia 207,369,200.00 2016
122 Benin 207,075,100.00 2016
123 Iceland 201,450,600.00 2016
124 Niger 181,636,800.00 2016
125 Rwanda 172,518,800.00 2016
126 Sudan 153,411,500.00 2016
127 Trinidad and Tobago 145,131,700.00 2016
128 Comoros 130,560,200.00 2016
129 Lao PDR 116,384,100.00 2016
130 Barbados 108,317,200.00 2016
131 Chile 103,902,200.00 2016
132 Swaziland 98,421,040.00 2016
133 Belize 96,671,010.00 2016
134 Mozambique 93,372,690.00 2016
135 Guinea-Bissau 93,278,190.00 2016
136 Uruguay 85,051,780.00 2016
137 Fiji 80,401,040.00 2016
138 Tonga 80,201,910.00 2016
139 Timor-Leste 80,174,600.00 2016
140 Namibia 66,478,710.00 2016
141 Djibouti 57,990,100.00 2016
142 Dominica 56,823,060.00 2016
143 Guinea 52,170,780.00 2016
144 Sierra Leone 48,163,690.00 2016
145 Oman 39,011,700.00 2016
146 Zambia 38,464,440.00 2016
147 Samoa 38,322,510.00 2016
148 Malawi 34,442,820.00 2016
149 Bhutan 34,343,460.00 2016
150 Burundi 31,276,060.00 2016
151 Antigua and Barbuda 29,413,390.00 2016
152 Macao SAR, China 27,588,640.00 2016
153 Botswana 24,622,510.00 2016
154 Seychelles 22,087,020.00 2016
155 Somalia 21,700,490.00 1983
156 Solomon Islands 20,282,720.00 2016
157 Vanuatu 18,863,510.00 2016
158 São Tomé and Principe 18,044,840.00 2016
159 Kiribati 17,475,180.00 2016
160 Libya 16,000,000.00 2006
161 Dem. Rep. Congo 15,982,890.00 2016
162 Congo 14,814,300.00 2007
163 Gabon 11,028,150.00 2005
164 St. Kitts and Nevis 10,381,370.00 2016
165 Turkmenistan 9,000,000.00 2016
166 Tuvalu 4,056,908.00 2016
167 Kuwait 3,992,061.00 2016
168 Angola 3,988,049.00 2016
169 Eritrea 3,284,751.00 2000
170 Papua New Guinea 2,681,111.00 2016
171 Palau 2,273,734.00 2016
172 Mauritania 2,207,180.00 1998
173 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1,620,929.00 2016
174 Suriname 1,493,544.00 2016
175 Mauritius 1,294,258.00 2016
176 St. Lucia 1,198,694.00 2016
177 Grenada 1,192,886.00 2016
178 Chad 724,057.30 1994
179 Equatorial Guinea 164,206.00 1996
180 Central African Republic 158,919.30 1993

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Development Relevance: Movement of people, most often through migration, is a significant part of global integration. Migrants contribute to the economies of both their host country and their country of origin. Yet reliable statistics on migration are difficult to collect and are often incomplete, making international comparisons a challenge. In most developed countries, refugees are admitted for resettlement and are routinely included in population counts by censuses or population registers. Globally, the number of refugees at end 2010 was 10.55 million, including 597,300 people considered by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to be in a refugee-like situation; developing countries hosted 8.5 million refugees, or 80 percent of the global refugee population. Global migration patterns have become increasingly complex in modern times, involving not just refugees, but also millions of economic migrants. But refugees and migrants, even if they often travel in the same way, are fundamentally different, and for that reason are treated very differently under modern international law. Migrants, especially economic migrants, choose to move in order to improve the future prospects of themselves and their families. Refugees have to move if they are to save their lives or preserve their freedom. They have no protection from their own state - indeed it is often their own government that is threatening to persecute them. If other countries do not let them in, and do not help them once they are in, then they may be condemning them to death - or to an intolerable life in the shadows, without sustenance and without rights.

Limitations and Exceptions: Remittance transactions have grown in importance over the past decade. In a number of developing economies, receipts of remittances have become an important and stable source of funds that exceeds receipts from exports of goods and services or from financial inflows on foreign direct investment. But the quality of statistical remittance data is not high. Remittances are a challenge to measure because of their nature. They are heterogeneous with numerous small transactions conducted by individuals through a wide variety of channels: formal channels, such as electronic wire, or through informal channels, such as cash or goods carried across borders. The large number of remittance transactions and the multitude of channels pose challenges to the compilation of comprehensive statistics. The small size of individual transactions means that they often go undetected by typical data source systems, although the aggregate level of transactions may be substantial. Because of difficulties in obtaining data on informal remittance transactions, the remittance transactions undertaken through informal channels are sometimes not well covered in current balance of payments data. As a result, even though direct measurement of remittances - through transactions reporting or surveys - may be considered preferable if feasible, some countries instead combine different sources and estimation methods to achieve better coverage, by using direct measurements where practical and supplemented estimates where they are not. Model-based approaches are used in some countries as they are flexible. Compilers can design models to fill gaps in data sources or to provide global totals. However, only reliable input data can lead to sound estimates, regardless of the sophistication of an estimation method or econometric model. Indirect data are converted to remittance estimates using a set of assumptions. These assumptions should be plausible, but it is often not possible to test or verify these assumptions and also the results in practice.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The two main components of personal remittances, "personal transfers" and "compensation of employees", are items in the balance of payments (BPM6) framework. Both of these standard components are recorded in the current account. "Personal transfers", a new item in the Balance of Payments (BPM6) represents a broader definition of worker remittances. Personal transfers include all current transfers in cash or in kind between resident and nonresident individuals, independent of the source of income of the sender (irrespective of whether the sender receives income from labor, entrepreneurial or property income, social benefits, and any other types of transfers; or disposes assets) and the relationship between the households (irrespective of whether they are related or unrelated individuals). Compensation of employees refers to the income of border, seasonal, and other short-term workers who are employed in an economy where they are not resident and of residents employed by nonresident entities. Compensation of employees represents remuneration in return for the labor input to the production process contributed by an individual in an employer-employee relationship with the enterprise. Compensation of employees is recorded gross and includes amounts paid by the employee as taxes or for other purposes in the economy where the work is performed. Compensation of employees has three main components: wages and salaries in cash, wages and salaries in kind, and employers' social contributions.

Aggregation method: Sum

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: Note: Data starting from 2005 are based on the sixth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual (BPM6).