Foreign direct investment, net inflows (% of GDP) - Country Ranking

Definition: Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors, and is divided by GDP.

Source: International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and Balance of Payments databases, World Bank, International Debt Statistics, and World Bank and OECD GDP estimates.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Liechtenstein 976.24 2016
2 Cayman Islands 497.09 2017
3 Congo 38.29 2018
4 Malta 33.03 2018
5 Hong Kong SAR, China 23.84 2018
6 Singapore 22.53 2018
7 Mozambique 18.20 2018
8 Ireland 16.87 2018
9 Mongolia 14.94 2018
10 Sierra Leone 14.66 2018
11 Guyana 12.76 2018
12 Cambodia 12.64 2018
13 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 12.38 2018
14 Grenada 10.71 2018
15 Panama 10.11 2018
16 Djibouti 8.97 2018
17 Montenegro 8.82 2018
18 Somalia 8.66 2018
19 St. Kitts and Nevis 8.39 2018
20 Serbia 8.12 2018
21 Oman 8.00 2018
22 Albania 7.99 2018
23 The Bahamas 7.59 2018
24 Palau 7.57 2018
25 Lao PDR 7.35 2018
26 São Tomé and Principe 7.30 2018
27 Antigua and Barbuda 7.23 2018
28 St. Lucia 7.03 2018
29 Georgia 6.73 2018
30 Belize 6.39 2018
31 Vietnam 6.32 2018
32 Fiji 6.16 2018
33 Chad 5.87 2018
34 Honduras 5.68 2018
35 Suriname 5.63 2018
36 Israel 5.61 2018
37 North Macedonia 5.32 2018
38 Cabo Verde 5.16 2018
39 Lebanon 5.08 2018
40 Gabon 5.02 2018
41 Niger 4.95 2018
42 Jamaica 4.93 2018
43 Turkmenistan 4.87 2018
44 Uganda 4.87 2018
45 Brazil 4.73 2018
46 Costa Rica 4.60 2018
47 Ghana 4.56 2018
48 Uruguay 4.53 2018
49 Madagascar 4.42 2018
50 Australia 4.25 2018
51 Vanuatu 4.16 2018
52 Bahrain 4.01 2018
53 Bulgaria 3.96 2018
54 Ethiopia 3.92 2018
55 Estonia 3.87 2018
56 Barbados 3.79 2018
57 Brunei 3.77 2018
58 Liberia 3.74 2018
59 Czech Republic 3.46 2018
60 Colombia 3.43 2018
61 Burkina Faso 3.40 2018
62 Tonga 3.34 2018
63 Guinea 3.23 2018
64 Rwanda 3.21 2018
65 Dominican Republic 3.21 2018
66 Spain 3.15 2018
67 Morocco 3.07 2018
68 Syrian Arab Republic 3.07 2007
69 Mexico 3.02 2018
70 Azerbaijan 2.99 2018
71 Philippines 2.96 2018
72 Equatorial Guinea 2.95 2018
73 Tajikistan 2.94 2018
74 Peru 2.92 2018
75 Romania 2.87 2018
76 Slovenia 2.82 2018
77 Sudan 2.78 2018
78 Seychelles 2.76 2018
79 Nicaragua 2.74 2018
80 Dem. Rep. Congo 2.72 2018
81 Egypt 2.71 2018
82 Germany 2.67 2018
83 Canada 2.65 2018
84 Thailand 2.62 2018
85 Mauritius 2.61 2018
86 Senegal 2.61 2018
87 United Arab Emirates 2.51 2018
88 Tunisia 2.48 2018
89 Belarus 2.47 2018
90 Austria 2.47 2018
91 Slovak Republic 2.41 2018
92 Bosnia and Herzegovina 2.41 2018
93 Zimbabwe 2.40 2018
94 Malaysia 2.39 2018
95 Argentina 2.28 2018
96 Jordan 2.25 2018
97 France 2.15 2018
98 Mali 2.13 2018
99 Côte d'Ivoire 2.12 2018
100 Croatia 2.11 2018
101 Poland 2.05 2018
102 United Kingdom 2.05 2018
103 Armenia 2.04 2018
104 Chile 2.04 2018
105 Samoa 2.04 2018
106 Moldova 2.03 2018
107 Macao SAR, China 2.02 2018
108 Portugal 2.02 2018
109 Benin 2.00 2018
110 Greece 1.98 2018
111 Indonesia 1.92 2018
112 Tanzania 1.90 2018
113 Togo 1.90 2018
114 Ukraine 1.89 2018
115 Timor-Leste 1.86 2018
116 Kenya 1.85 2018
117 Cameroon 1.81 2018
118 Myanmar 1.81 2018
119 Sri Lanka 1.81 2018
120 The Gambia 1.79 2018
121 Turkey 1.69 2018
122 El Salvador 1.64 2018
123 Lithuania 1.62 2018
124 India 1.55 2018
125 Zambia 1.53 2018
126 Denmark 1.52 2018
127 Eritrea 1.50 2011
128 China 1.50 2018
129 South Africa 1.48 2018
130 Italy 1.48 2018
131 Lesotho 1.45 2018
132 Malawi 1.44 2018
133 Papua New Guinea 1.43 2018
134 Mauritania 1.35 2018
135 Guatemala 1.35 2018
136 Ecuador 1.30 2018
137 United States 1.26 2018
138 Paraguay 1.25 2018
139 Uzbekistan 1.24 2018
140 Latvia 1.23 2018
141 Botswana 1.23 2018
142 Namibia 1.21 2018
143 Guinea-Bissau 1.19 2018
144 Iran 1.11 2017
145 Haiti 1.09 2018
146 Bangladesh 1.07 2018
147 Korea 0.89 2018
148 Algeria 0.87 2018
149 Solomon Islands 0.86 2018
150 Sweden 0.83 2018
151 Central African Republic 0.81 2018
152 New Zealand 0.79 2018
153 Pakistan 0.75 2018
154 Afghanistan 0.72 2018
155 Tuvalu 0.70 2018
156 Comoros 0.67 2018
157 Bolivia 0.63 2018
158 Kyrgyz Republic 0.58 2018
159 Nepal 0.55 2018
160 Saudi Arabia 0.54 2018
161 Eswatini 0.54 2018
162 Russia 0.53 2018
163 Japan 0.52 2018
164 Nigeria 0.50 2018
165 Kiribati 0.31 2018
166 Venezuela 0.24 2014
167 Kazakhstan 0.12 2018
168 Bhutan 0.10 2018
169 Burundi 0.03 2018
170 Libya 0.00 2018
170 Nauru 0.00 2016
172 Kuwait -0.02 2018
173 Trinidad and Tobago -0.76 2018
174 Yemen -1.05 2018
175 Qatar -1.14 2018
176 Cyprus -1.33 2018
177 New Caledonia -1.51 2000
178 Finland -1.76 2018
179 Iceland -1.81 2018
180 Iraq -2.18 2018
181 Norway -4.39 2018
182 Angola -5.42 2018
183 Dominica -6.75 2018
184 Luxembourg -7.92 2018
185 Switzerland -9.60 2018
186 Belgium -11.80 2018
187 Netherlands -26.19 2018
188 Hungary -46.12 2018

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Development Relevance: Private financial flows - equity and debt - account for the bulk of development finance. Equity flows comprise foreign direct investment (FDI) and portfolio equity. Debt flows are financing raised through bond issuance, bank lending, and supplier credits.

Limitations and Exceptions: FDI data do not give a complete picture of international investment in an economy. Balance of payments data on FDI do not include capital raised locally, an important source of investment financing in some developing countries. In addition, FDI data omit nonequity cross-border transactions such as intra-unit flows of goods and services. The volume of global private financial flows reported by the World Bank generally differs from that reported by other sources because of differences in sources, classification of economies, and method used to adjust and disaggregate reported information. In addition, particularly for debt financing, differences may also reflect how some installments of the transactions and certain offshore issuances are treated. Data on equity flows are shown for all countries for which data are available.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Data on equity flows are based on balance of payments data reported by the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Foreign direct investment (FDI) data are supplemented by the World Bank staff estimates using data from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and official national sources. The internationally accepted definition of FDI (from the sixth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual [2009]), includes the following components: equity investment, including investment associated with equity that gives rise to control or influence; investment in indirectly influenced or controlled enterprises; investment in fellow enterprises; debt (except selected debt); and reverse investment. The Framework for Direct Investment Relationships provides criteria for determining whether cross-border ownership results in a direct investment relationship, based on control and influence. Distinguished from other kinds of international investment, FDI is made to establish a lasting interest in or effective management control over an enterprise in another country. A lasting interest in an investment enterprise typically involves establishing warehouses, manufacturing facilities, and other permanent or long-term organizations abroad. Direct investments may take the form of greenfield investment, where the investor starts a new venture in a foreign country by constructing new operational facilities; joint venture, where the investor enters into a partnership agreement with a company abroad to establish a new enterprise; or merger and acquisition, where the investor acquires an existing enterprise abroad. The IMF suggests that investments should account for at least 10 percent of voting stock to be counted as FDI. In practice many countries set a higher threshold. Many countries fail to report reinvested earnings, and the definition of long-term loans differs among countries. BoP refers to Balance of Payments.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: Note: Data starting from 2005 are based on the sixth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual (BPM6).