Personal remittances, paid (current US$) - Country Ranking

Definition: Personal remittances comprise personal transfers and compensation of employees. Personal transfers consist of all current transfers in cash or in kind made or received by resident households to or from nonresident households. Personal transfers thus include all current transfers between resident and nonresident individuals. Compensation of employees refers to the income of border, seasonal, and other short-term workers who are employed in an economy where they are not resident and of residents employed by nonresident entities. Data are the sum of two items defined in the sixth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual: personal transfers and compensation of employees. Data are in current U.S. dollars.

Source: World Bank staff estimates based on IMF balance of payments data.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 United States 66,649,000,000.00 2016
2 Saudi Arabia 38,884,710,000.00 2016
3 Switzerland 26,276,140,000.00 2016
4 Germany 20,640,100,000.00 2016
5 China 20,286,000,000.00 2016
6 Russia 16,590,340,000.00 2016
7 Kuwait 15,285,780,000.00 2016
8 France 12,527,650,000.00 2016
9 Qatar 11,981,870,000.00 2016
10 Luxembourg 11,633,510,000.00 2016
11 Korea 10,346,300,000.00 2016
12 Oman 10,278,280,000.00 2016
13 United Kingdom 10,190,970,000.00 2016
14 Italy 9,396,294,000.00 2016
15 Netherlands 7,571,977,000.00 2016
16 Australia 6,354,827,000.00 2016
17 India 5,622,661,000.00 2016
18 Israel 5,206,300,000.00 2016
19 Indonesia 5,150,594,000.00 2016
20 Japan 5,064,715,000.00 2016
21 Canada 4,738,535,000.00 2016
22 Austria 4,523,562,000.00 2016
23 Norway 4,162,486,000.00 2016
24 Thailand 4,155,190,000.00 2016
25 Belgium 3,890,063,000.00 2016
26 Poland 3,716,000,000.00 2016
27 Lebanon 3,680,344,000.00 2016
28 Libya 3,199,300,000.00 2013
29 Malaysia 2,944,206,000.00 2016
30 Denmark 2,903,363,000.00 2016
31 Kazakhstan 2,394,538,000.00 2016
32 Bahrain 2,364,362,000.00 2014
33 Czech Republic 1,658,605,000.00 2016
34 Macao SAR, China 1,595,971,000.00 2016
35 Ghana 1,548,910,000.00 2016
36 Ireland 1,541,417,000.00 2016
37 Brazil 1,385,076,000.00 2016
38 Angola 1,176,110,000.00 2016
39 Sweden 1,168,378,000.00 2016
40 Turkey 1,129,000,000.00 2016
41 Malta 920,168,900.00 2016
42 South Africa 896,870,500.00 2016
43 Sri Lanka 874,380,000.00 2016
44 Panama 839,000,000.00 2016
45 Argentina 823,565,700.00 2016
46 Hong Kong SAR, China 816,784,300.00 2016
47 Hungary 763,327,100.00 2016
48 New Zealand 745,227,100.00 2016
49 Nigeria 742,413,200.00 2016
50 Azerbaijan 740,236,000.00 2016
51 Cyprus 731,757,400.00 2016
52 Greece 718,239,300.00 2016
53 Mexico 653,519,200.00 2016
54 Côte d'Ivoire 649,508,000.00 2015
55 Dominican Republic 644,000,000.00 2016
56 Finland 634,408,300.00 2016
57 Lithuania 583,722,900.00 2016
58 Jordan 570,000,000.00 2016
59 Ukraine 559,000,000.00 2016
60 Romania 547,489,900.00 2016
61 Syrian Arab Republic 530,185,100.00 2010
62 Brunei 444,817,400.00 2009
63 Costa Rica 416,129,200.00 2016
64 Latvia 415,535,300.00 2016
65 Kyrgyz Republic 377,553,200.00 2016
66 Trinidad and Tobago 371,214,800.00 2016
67 Armenia 358,015,500.00 2016
68 Egypt 352,200,000.00 2016
69 Iraq 349,600,000.00 2016
70 Yemen 333,389,500.00 2015
71 Ecuador 302,374,300.00 2016
72 Senegal 300,015,300.00 2014
73 Liberia 299,292,100.00 2015
74 Jamaica 298,112,500.00 2016
75 Myanmar 297,721,200.00 2016
76 Chile 296,111,400.00 2016
77 Spain 284,189,200.00 2016
78 Croatia 278,367,500.00 2016
79 Uganda 270,644,900.00 2016
80 Haiti 266,344,500.00 2016
81 Cambodia 252,466,900.00 2016
82 Slovak Republic 242,206,900.00 2016
83 Serbia 238,628,400.00 2016
84 Timor-Leste 237,380,400.00 2016
85 Bolivia 229,382,400.00 2016
86 Portugal 213,118,400.00 2016
87 Papua New Guinea 197,508,500.00 2016
88 The Bahamas 193,848,500.00 2016
89 Slovenia 193,756,400.00 2016
90 Gabon 185,594,100.00 2005
91 Philippines 185,507,000.00 2016
92 Mauritania 171,581,500.00 2015
93 Mongolia 170,934,400.00 2016
94 Bulgaria 166,700,000.00 2016
95 Burkina Faso 160,341,000.00 2014
96 Iceland 149,131,900.00 2016
97 El Salvador 147,466,100.00 2016
98 Mali 147,305,700.00 2014
99 Albania 147,130,000.00 2016
100 Moldova 135,670,000.00 2016
101 Rwanda 134,039,800.00 2016
102 Morocco 123,873,900.00 2016
103 Belarus 123,800,000.00 2016
104 Estonia 122,676,400.00 2016
105 Guyana 118,724,100.00 2015
106 Peru 116,593,600.00 2011
107 Sudan 112,042,600.00 2016
108 Tanzania 108,374,800.00 2016
109 Afghanistan 102,474,400.00 2016
110 Niger 101,229,000.00 2015
111 Georgia 100,492,400.00 2016
112 Mozambique 98,477,390.00 2016
113 Benin 98,142,620.00 2015
114 Togo 89,395,660.00 2015
115 Tajikistan 87,127,370.00 2016
116 Vietnam 76,000,000.00 2016
117 Cameroon 75,577,030.00 2015
118 New Caledonia 70,288,100.00 2014
119 Solomon Islands 69,187,220.00 2016
120 Congo 67,048,940.00 2014
121 Botswana 64,142,860.00 2016
122 Zambia 63,405,840.00 2016
123 Pakistan 63,000,000.00 2016
124 Seychelles 62,945,640.00 2016
125 Bosnia and Herzegovina 61,811,370.00 2016
126 Montenegro 61,228,030.00 2016
127 Algeria 58,970,230.00 2016
128 Venezuela 54,000,000.00 2016
129 Bhutan 52,526,250.00 2016
130 Barbados 46,366,000.00 2013
131 Colombia 45,526,210.00 2016
132 Belize 45,202,220.00 2016
133 Namibia 43,210,070.00 2016
134 Bangladesh 41,669,800.00 2016
135 Honduras 41,100,000.00 2016
136 Suriname 40,347,660.00 2016
137 Lao PDR 39,476,130.00 2016
138 Guinea-Bissau 38,406,680.00 2015
139 Madagascar 36,863,410.00 2016
140 Guinea 33,870,680.00 2016
141 Antigua and Barbuda 30,916,040.00 2016
142 Lesotho 30,760,980.00 2011
143 Ethiopia 29,869,540.00 2016
144 Dem. Rep. Congo 28,502,800.00 2016
145 Tunisia 27,420,430.00 2016
146 Central African Republic 27,377,290.00 1994
147 Guatemala 27,000,000.00 2016
148 Cabo Verde 26,226,580.00 2016
149 Dominica 25,200,340.00 2016
150 Macedonia 24,250,400.00 2016
151 Nepal 20,054,320.00 2016
152 Burundi 19,085,450.00 2016
153 Swaziland 18,849,750.00 2016
154 The Gambia 18,757,990.00 2016
155 Djibouti 18,456,000.00 2016
156 Kenya 17,907,890.00 2016
157 Palau 16,785,280.00 2015
158 Samoa 15,747,450.00 2015
159 Chad 15,421,340.00 1994
160 Zimbabwe 13,844,870.00 2016
161 Uruguay 9,137,851.00 2016
162 Fiji 9,093,674.00 2015
163 Mauritius 6,784,508.00 2016
164 Sierra Leone 6,763,602.00 2015
165 Tonga 5,382,940.00 2013
166 Turkmenistan 4,400,000.00 1997
167 Grenada 3,434,736.00 2016
168 Vanuatu 3,331,007.00 2015
169 Somalia 2,571,629.00 1983
170 Tuvalu 2,378,073.00 2013
171 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 2,370,076.00 2016
172 Nicaragua 1,600,000.00 2016
173 Eritrea 1,309,558.00 2000
174 St. Kitts and Nevis 1,171,108.00 2016
175 Kiribati 936,986.50 2016
176 Comoros 826,446.40 2012
177 São Tomé and Principe 575,612.70 2016
178 Equatorial Guinea 331,409.30 1994
179 St. Lucia 105,227.00 2016
180 Paraguay 100,000.00 1988
181 Malawi 0.00 2016

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Development Relevance: Movement of people, most often through migration, is a significant part of global integration. Migrants contribute to the economies of both their host country and their country of origin. Yet reliable statistics on migration are difficult to collect and are often incomplete, making international comparisons a challenge. In most developed countries, refugees are admitted for resettlement and are routinely included in population counts by censuses or population registers. Globally, the number of refugees at end 2010 was 10.55 million, including 597,300 people considered by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to be in a refugee-like situation; developing countries hosted 8.5 million refugees, or 80 percent of the global refugee population. Global migration patterns have become increasingly complex in modern times, involving not just refugees, but also millions of economic migrants. But refugees and migrants, even if they often travel in the same way, are fundamentally different, and for that reason are treated very differently under modern international law. Migrants, especially economic migrants, choose to move in order to improve the future prospects of themselves and their families. Refugees have to move if they are to save their lives or preserve their freedom. They have no protection from their own state - indeed it is often their own government that is threatening to persecute them. If other countries do not let them in, and do not help them once they are in, then they may be condemning them to death - or to an intolerable life in the shadows, without sustenance and without rights.

Limitations and Exceptions: Remittance transactions have grown in importance over the past decade. In a number of developing economies, receipts of remittances have become an important and stable source of funds that exceeds receipts from exports of goods and services or from financial inflows on foreign direct investment. But the quality of statistical remittance data is not high. Remittances are a challenge to measure because of their nature. They are heterogeneous with numerous small transactions conducted by individuals through a wide variety of channels: formal channels, such as electronic wire, or through informal channels, such as cash or goods carried across borders. The large number of remittance transactions and the multitude of channels pose challenges to the compilation of comprehensive statistics. The small size of individual transactions means that they often go undetected by typical data source systems, although the aggregate level of transactions may be substantial. Because of difficulties in obtaining data on informal remittance transactions, the remittance transactions undertaken through informal channels are sometimes not well covered in current balance of payments data. As a result, even though direct measurement of remittances - through transactions reporting or surveys - may be considered preferable if feasible, some countries instead combine different sources and estimation methods to achieve better coverage, by using direct measurements where practical and supplemented estimates where they are not. Model-based approaches are used in some countries as they are flexible. Compilers can design models to fill gaps in data sources or to provide global totals. However, only reliable input data can lead to sound estimates, regardless of the sophistication of an estimation method or econometric model. Indirect data are converted to remittance estimates using a set of assumptions. These assumptions should be plausible, but it is often not possible to test or verify these assumptions and also the results in practice.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The two main components of personal remittances, "personal transfers" and "compensation of employees", are items in the balance of payments (BPM6) framework. Both of these standard components are recorded in the current account. "Personal transfers," a new item in the Balance of Payments (BPM6) represents a broader definition of worker remittances. Personal transfers include all current transfers in cash or in kind between resident and nonresident individuals, independent of the source of income of the sender (irrespective of whether the sender receives income from labor, entrepreneurial or property income, social benefits, and any other types of transfers; or disposes assets) and the relationship between the households (irrespective of whether they are related or unrelated individuals). Compensation of employees refers to the income of border, seasonal, and other short-term workers who are employed in an economy where they are not resident and of residents employed by nonresident entities. Compensation of employees represents remuneration in return for the labor input to the production process contributed by an individual in an employer-employee relationship with the enterprise. Compensation of employees is recorded gross and includes amounts paid by the employee as taxes or for other purposes in the economy where the work is performed. Compensation of employees has three main components: wages and salaries in cash, wages and salaries in kind, and employers' social contributions.

Aggregation method: Sum

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: Note: Data starting from 2005 are based on the sixth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual (BPM6).