Foreign direct investment, net outflows (% of GDP) - Country Ranking

Definition: Foreign direct investment refers to direct investment equity flows in an economy. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, and other capital. Direct investment is a category of cross-border investment associated with a resident in one economy having control or a significant degree of influence on the management of an enterprise that is resident in another economy. Ownership of 10 percent or more of the ordinary shares of voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. This series shows net outflows of investment from the reporting economy to the rest of the world, and is divided by GDP.

Source: International Monetary Fund, Balance of Payments database, supplemented by data from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and official national sources.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Cayman Islands 247.90 2006
2 Luxembourg 53.97 2016
3 Hungary 52.75 2016
4 Ireland 33.52 2016
5 Netherlands 32.48 2016
6 Hong Kong SAR, China 22.25 2016
7 Togo 10.26 2016
8 Singapore 8.04 2016
9 Azerbaijan 6.80 2016
10 Belgium 6.14 2016
11 Switzerland 5.95 2016
12 Cyprus 5.79 2016
13 Kuwait 5.77 2016
14 Denmark 5.73 2016
15 Finland 5.55 2016
16 Qatar 5.18 2016
17 Slovak Republic 4.59 2016
18 United Arab Emirates 4.51 2016
19 Canada 4.40 2016
20 Israel 4.11 2016
21 Spain 4.08 2016
22 Brunei 3.93 2015
23 Botswana 3.74 2016
24 Japan 3.43 2016
25 Malaysia 3.39 2016
26 Sweden 3.33 2016
27 Thailand 3.29 2016
28 The Bahamas 3.18 2016
29 Chile 2.88 2016
30 Angola 2.88 2016
31 Portugal 2.70 2016
32 France 2.61 2016
33 Kazakhstan 2.52 2016
34 Poland 2.37 2016
35 Norway 2.32 2016
36 Germany 2.19 2016
37 Liberia 1.96 2016
38 China 1.94 2016
39 Samoa 1.93 2016
40 Korea 1.93 2016
41 Lithuania 1.90 2016
42 United Kingdom 1.88 2016
43 Macedonia 1.83 2016
44 Georgia 1.78 2016
45 Russia 1.74 2016
46 Panama 1.73 2016
47 United States 1.67 2016
48 Colombia 1.60 2016
49 Honduras 1.52 2016
50 Jamaica 1.52 2016
51 Bulgaria 1.45 2016
52 Saudi Arabia 1.33 2016
53 Lebanon 1.29 2016
54 South Africa 1.13 2016
55 Slovenia 1.06 2016
56 Venezuela 0.94 2014
57 Madagascar 0.90 2016
58 Uruguay 0.89 2016
59 Latvia 0.89 2016
60 Costa Rica 0.86 2016
61 Dem. Rep. Congo 0.85 2016
62 Italy 0.82 2016
63 Estonia 0.81 2016
64 Guyana 0.74 2016
65 Brazil 0.71 2016
66 Timor-Leste 0.71 2016
67 Philippines 0.69 2016
68 Serbia 0.63 2016
69 Armenia 0.63 2016
70 Morocco 0.61 2016
71 Cambodia 0.61 2016
72 Romania 0.56 2016
73 Kyrgyz Republic 0.56 2016
74 Oman 0.54 2016
75 Cabo Verde 0.53 2016
76 Bahrain 0.53 2016
77 Mexico 0.53 2016
78 Vietnam 0.49 2016
79 Antigua and Barbuda 0.45 2016
80 El Salvador 0.42 2016
81 Niger 0.41 2016
82 Libya 0.38 2011
83 Turkey 0.36 2016
84 Czech Republic 0.33 2016
85 Paraguay 0.33 2016
86 Argentina 0.33 2016
87 Nigeria 0.32 2016
88 Mozambique 0.32 2016
89 Mauritania 0.30 2015
90 São Tomé and Principe 0.29 2016
91 Tonga 0.29 2016
92 Sri Lanka 0.29 2016
93 Belarus 0.26 2016
94 Senegal 0.26 2016
95 Moldova 0.24 2016
96 Albania 0.23 2016
97 Kenya 0.22 2016
98 India 0.22 2016
99 Bolivia 0.22 2016
100 Nicaragua 0.21 2016
101 Congo 0.21 2016
102 Ecuador 0.20 2016
103 Benin 0.20 2016
104 Zimbabwe 0.20 2016
105 Ukraine 0.19 2016
106 Iraq 0.18 2016
107 Zambia 0.18 2016
108 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 0.16 2016
109 Dominican Republic 0.16 2016
110 Peru 0.16 2016
111 Guatemala 0.16 2016
112 Mali 0.14 2016
113 Guinea-Bissau 0.13 2016
114 Mongolia 0.13 2016
115 Yemen 0.13 2016
116 Vanuatu 0.12 2016
117 Solomon Islands 0.11 2016
118 Belize 0.10 2016
119 Rwanda 0.09 2016
120 Tunisia 0.08 2016
121 Egypt 0.06 2016
122 Burkina Faso 0.05 2016
123 Grenada 0.05 2016
124 Mauritius 0.05 2016
125 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.04 2016
126 Ghana 0.03 2016
127 Cameroon 0.03 2016
128 Algeria 0.03 2016
129 Australia 0.03 2016
130 Kiribati 0.03 2016
131 Côte d'Ivoire 0.02 2016
132 Iran 0.02 2016
133 Pakistan 0.02 2016
134 Bangladesh 0.02 2016
135 Lao PDR 0.01 2016
136 Jordan 0.01 2016
137 Syrian Arab Republic 0.01 2007
138 Burundi 0.00 2016
139 Uganda 0.00 2016
140 Dominica 0.00 2016
141 Central African Republic 0.00 2015
141 Tanzania 0.00 2014
141 Sierra Leone 0.00 2014
141 Comoros 0.00 2014
141 Chad 0.00 2015
141 Palau 0.00 2014
141 Equatorial Guinea 0.00 2015
141 Haiti 0.00 2015
141 Nauru 0.00 2015
150 Papua New Guinea 0.00 2016
151 Afghanistan 0.00 2016
152 Guinea -0.02 2016
153 Namibia -0.06 2016
154 Malawi -0.08 2016
155 The Gambia -0.10 2016
156 Swaziland -0.15 2016
157 Barbados -0.25 2016
158 St. Kitts and Nevis -0.46 2016
159 Fiji -0.48 2016
160 New Zealand -0.49 2016
161 Croatia -0.56 2016
162 Greece -0.82 2016
163 Trinidad and Tobago -1.03 2016
164 Gabon -1.18 2016
165 Lesotho -1.20 2014
166 St. Lucia -1.23 2016
167 Indonesia -1.27 2016
168 Suriname -1.45 2016
169 Macao SAR, China -1.65 2016
170 Tajikistan -1.87 2013
171 Eritrea -3.95 2000
172 Montenegro -4.23 2016
173 Seychelles -4.78 2016
174 Austria -7.33 2016
175 Iceland -9.52 2016
176 Malta -60.96 2016

More rankings: Africa | Asia | Central America & the Caribbean | Europe | Middle East | North America | Oceania | South America | World |

Development Relevance: Private financial flows - equity and debt - account for the bulk of development finance. Equity flows comprise foreign direct investment (FDI) and portfolio equity. Debt flows are financing raised through bond issuance, bank lending, and supplier credits.

Limitations and Exceptions: FDI data do not give a complete picture of international investment in an economy. Balance of payments data on FDI do not include capital raised locally, an important source of investment financing in some developing countries. In addition, FDI data omit nonequity cross-border transactions such as intra-unit flows of goods and services. The volume of global private financial flows reported by the World Bank generally differs from that reported by other sources because of differences in sources, classification of economies, and method used to adjust and disaggregate reported information. In addition, particularly for debt financing, differences may also reflect how some installments of the transactions and certain offshore issuances are treated. Data on equity flows are shown for all countries for which data are available.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Data on equity flows are based on balance of payments data reported by the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Foreign direct investment (FDI) data are supplemented by the World Bank staff estimates using data from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and official national sources. The internationally accepted definition of FDI (from the sixth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual [2009]), includes the following components: equity investment, including investment associated with equity that gives rise to control or influence; investment in indirectly influenced or controlled enterprises; investment in fellow enterprises; debt (except selected debt); and reverse investment. The Framework for Direct Investment Relationships provides criteria for determining whether cross-border ownership results in a direct investment relationship, based on control and influence. Distinguished from other kinds of international investment, FDI is made to establish a lasting interest in or effective management control over an enterprise in another country. A lasting interest in an investment enterprise typically involves establishing warehouses, manufacturing facilities, and other permanent or long-term organizations abroad. Direct investments may take the form of greenfield investment, where the investor starts a new venture in a foreign country by constructing new operational facilities; joint venture, where the investor enters into a partnership agreement with a company abroad to establish a new enterprise; or merger and acquisition, where the investor acquires an existing enterprise abroad. The IMF suggests that investments should account for at least 10 percent of voting stock to be counted as FDI. In practice many countries set a higher threshold. Many countries fail to report reinvested earnings, and the definition of long-term loans differs among countries. BoP refers to Balance of Payments.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual

General Comments: Note: Data starting from 2005 are based on the sixth edition of the IMF's Balance of Payments Manual (BPM6).