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Cuba Demographics Profile

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Population11,032,343 (July 2021 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Cuban(s)

adjective: Cuban
Ethnic groupsWhite 64.1%, Mulatto or mixed 26.6%, Black 9.3% (2012 est.)

note: data represent racial self-identification from Cuba's 2012 national census
LanguagesSpanish (official)

major-language sample(s):
La Libreta Informativa del Mundo, la fuente indispensable de información básica. (Spanish)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
ReligionsChristian 58.9%, folk religion 17.6%, Buddhist <1%, Hindu <1%, Jewish <1%, Muslim <1%, other <1%, none 23.2% (2020 est.)

note: folk religions include religions of African origin, spiritualism, and others intermingled with Catholicism or Protestantism; data is estimative because no authoritative source on religious affiliation exists in Cuba
Age structure0-14 years: 16.34% (male 929,927/female 877,035)

15-24 years: 11.81% (male 678,253/female 627,384)

25-54 years: 41.95% (male 2,335,680/female 2,303,793)

55-64 years: 14.11% (male 760,165/female 799,734)

65 years and over: 15.8% (male 794,743/female 952,348) (2020 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 46.7

youth dependency ratio: 23.3

elderly dependency ratio: 23.3

potential support ratio: 4.3 (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 42.1 years

male: 40.2 years

female: 43.8 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate-0.23% (2021 est.)
Birth rate10.25 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate9.22 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate-3.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Population distributionlarge population clusters found throughout the country, the more significant ones being in the larger towns and cities, particularly the capital of Havana
Urbanizationurban population: 77.3% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 0.19% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Major cities - population2.143 million HAVANA (capital) (2021)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.06 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female

total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Maternal mortality rate36 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 4.19 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 4.72 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 3.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 79.41 years

male: 77.04 years

female: 81.92 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate1.71 children born/woman (2021 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate69% (2019)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 98.2% of population

rural: 94.5% of population

total: 97.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 1.8% of population

rural: 5.5% of population

total: 2.6% of population (2017 est.)
Health expenditures11.2% (2018)
Physicians density8.42 physicians/1,000 population (2018)
Hospital bed density5.3 beds/1,000 population (2017)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 96.1% of population

rural: 94.8% of population

total: 95.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 3.9% of population

rural: 5.2% of population

total: 4.2% of population (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.4% (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS33,000 (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths<500 (2020 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: intermediate (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever
Obesity - adult prevalence rate24.6% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight2.4% (2019)
Education expenditures12.8% of GDP (2010)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 99.8%

male: 99.9%

female: 99.8% (2015)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 15 years (2018)
People - noteillicit emigration is a continuing problem; Cubans attempt to depart the island and enter the US using homemade rafts, alien smugglers, direct flights, or falsified visas; Cubans also use non-maritime routes to enter the US including direct flights to Miami and overland via the southwest border; the number of Cubans migrating to the US surged after the announcement of normalization of US-Cuban relations in late December 2014 but has decreased since the end of the so-called "wet-foot, dry-foot" policy on 12 January 2017

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on September 18, 2021