Flag of Australia

Australia Geography Profile

Home > Factbook > Countries > Australia

LocationOceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates27 00 S, 133 00 E
Map referencesOceania
Areatotal: 7,741,220 sq km

land: 7,682,300 sq km

water: 58,920 sq km

note: includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than the US contiguous 48 states
Land boundariestotal: 0 km
Coastline25,760 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm

contiguous zone: 24 nm

exclusive economic zone: 200 nm

continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climategenerally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north
Terrainmostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast
Elevation extremeshighest point: Mount Kosciuszko 2,228 m

lowest point: Lake Eyre -15 m

mean elevation: 330 m
Natural resourcesalumina, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, rare earth elements, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum; note - Australia is the world's largest net exporter of coal accounting for 29% of global coal exports
Land useagricultural land: 52.9% (2018 est.)

arable land: 11.6% (2018 est.)

permanent crops: 0.09% (2018 est.)

permanent pasture: 88.4% (2018 est.)

forest: 16.2% (2018 est.)

other: 30.9% (2018 est.)
Irrigated land25,460 sq km (2014)
Total renewable water resources492 billion cubic meters (2017 est.)
Natural hazards

cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires

volcanism: volcanic activity on Heard and McDonald Islands

Geography - notenote 1: world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; the largest country in Oceania, the largest country entirely in the Southern Hemisphere, and the largest country without land borders

note 2: the Great Dividing Range that runs along eastern Australia is that continent’s longest mountain range and the third-longest land-based range in the world; the term "Great Dividing Range" refers to the fact that the mountains form a watershed crest from which all of the rivers of eastern Australia flow – east, west, north, and south

note 3: Australia is the only continent without glaciers; it is the driest inhabited continent on earth, making it particularly vulnerable to the challenges of climate change; the invigorating sea breeze known as the "Fremantle Doctor" affects the city of Perth on the west coast and is one of the most consistent winds in the world; Australia is home to 10% of the world's biodiversity, and a great number of its flora and fauna exist nowhere else in the world

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on September 18, 2021