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Turkmenistan Geography Profile 2017

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LocationCentral Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan
Geographic coordinates40 00 N, 60 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Areatotal: 488,100 sq km
land: 469,930 sq km
water: 18,170 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly more than three times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than California
Land boundariestotal: 4,158 km
border countries (4): Afghanistan 804 km, Iran 1,148 km, Kazakhstan 413 km, Uzbekistan 1,793 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked); note - Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
Climatesubtropical desert
Terrainflat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 230 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Vpadina Akchanaya -81 m (Sarygamysh Koli is a lake in northern Turkmenistan with a water level that fluctuates above and below the elevation of Vpadina Akchanaya, the lake has dropped as low as -110 m)
highest point: Gora Ayribaba 3,139 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, sulfur, salt
Land useagricultural land: 72%
arable land 4.1%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 67.8%
forest: 8.8%
other: 19.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land19,950 sq km (2012)
Population distributionthe most densly populated areas are the southern, eastern, and northeastern oases; approximately 50% of the population lives in and around the capital of Ashgabat
Natural hazardsNA
Environment - current issuescontamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salination, water logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; the western and central low-lying desolate portions of the country make up the great Garagum (Kara-Kum) desert, which occupies over 80% of the country; eastern part is plateau

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on July 9, 2017

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