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Turkey Geography Profile 2017

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LocationSoutheastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
Geographic coordinates39 00 N, 35 00 E
Map referencesMiddle East
Areatotal: 783,562 sq km
land: 769,632 sq km
water: 13,930 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly larger than Texas
Land boundariestotal: 2,816 km
border countries (8): Armenia 311 km, Azerbaijan 17 km, Bulgaria 223 km, Georgia 273 km, Greece 192 km, Iran 534 km, Iraq 367 km, Syria 899 km
Coastline7,200 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea; 12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea
exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
Climatetemperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
Terrainhigh central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,132 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m
Natural resourcescoal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 49.7%
arable land 26.7%; permanent crops 4%; permanent pasture 19%
forest: 14.9%
other: 35.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land52,150 sq km (2012)
Population distributionthe most densely populated area is found around the Bosporus in the northwest where 20% of the population lives in Istanbul; with the exception of Ankara, urban centers remain small and scattered throughout the interior of Anatolia; an overall pattern of peripheral development exists, particularly along the western Mediterranean coast, and the Tigris and Euphrates River systems in the southeast
Natural hazardssevere earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
volcanism: limited volcanic activity; its three historically active volcanoes; Ararat, Nemrut Dagi, and Tendurek Dagi have not erupted since the 19th century or earlier
Environment - current issueswater pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography - notestrategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link the Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on July 9, 2017

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