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Somalia Geography Profile 2017

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LocationEastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia
Geographic coordinates10 00 N, 49 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Areatotal: 637,657 sq km
land: 627,337 sq km
water: 10,320 sq km
Area - comparativealmost five times the size of Alabama; slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundariestotal: 2,385 km
border countries (3): Djibouti 61 km, Ethiopia 1,640 km, Kenya 684 km
Coastline3,025 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 200 nm
Climateprincipally desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons
Terrainmostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 410 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Shimbiris 2,416 m
Natural resourcesuranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reserves
Land useagricultural land: 70.3%
arable land 1.8%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 68.5%
forest: 10.6%
other: 19.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land2,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazardsrecurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during rainy season
Environment - current issuesfamine; use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notestrategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on July 9, 2017

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