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Romania Geography Profile 2017

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LocationSoutheastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Geographic coordinates46 00 N, 25 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Areatotal: 238,391 sq km
land: 229,891 sq km
water: 8,500 sq km
Area - comparativetwice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundariestotal: 2,844 km
border countries (5): Bulgaria 605 km, Hungary 424 km, Moldova 683 km, Serbia 531 km, Ukraine 601 km
Coastline225 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatetemperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Terraincentral Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 414 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
Natural resourcespetroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 60.7%
arable land 39.1%; permanent crops 1.9%; permanent pasture 19.7%
forest: 28.7%
other: 10.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land31,490 sq km (2012)
Population distributionurbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania
Natural hazardsearthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
Environment - current issuessoil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notecontrols the most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine; the Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of the country, while the Danube River forms much of the southern boundary with Serbia and Bulgaria

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on July 9, 2017

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