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Poland Geography Profile 2017

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LocationCentral Europe, east of Germany
Geographic coordinates52 00 N, 20 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Areatotal: 312,685 sq km
land: 304,255 sq km
water: 8,430 sq km
Area - comparativeabout twice the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than New Mexico
Land boundariestotal: 3,071 km
border countries (7): Belarus 418 km, Czech Republic 796 km, Germany 467 km, Lithuania 104 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 210 km, Slovakia 541 km, Ukraine 535 km
Coastline440 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: defined by international treaties
Climatetemperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers
Terrainmostly flat plain; mountains along southern border
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 173 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: near Raczki Elblaskie -2 m
highest point: Rysy 2,499 m
Natural resourcescoal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt, amber, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 48.2%
arable land 36.2%; permanent crops 1.3%; permanent pasture 10.7%
forest: 30.6%
other: 21.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land970 sq km (2012)
Population distributionpopulation concentrated in the southern (Krakow) and central (Warsaw, Lodz) areas, with an extension to the northern coastal city of Gdansk
Natural hazardsflooding
Environment - current issuesdecreased emphasis on heavy industry and increased environmental concern by post-communist governments has improved environment; air pollution remains serious because of emissions from coal-fired power plants and the resulting acid rain has caused forest damage; water pollution from industrial and municipal sources is also a problem, as is disposal of hazardous wastes
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94
Geography - notehistorically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on July 9, 2017

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