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Nicaragua Demographics Profile 2013

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Population5,788,531 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 30% (male 886,490/female 852,690)
15-24 years: 22.5% (male 653,868/female 651,076)
25-54 years: 37.4% (male 1,024,395/female 1,143,011)
55-64 years: 5.2% (male 141,026/female 162,159)
65 years and over: 4.7% (male 123,878/female 149,938) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 59.9 %
youth dependency ratio: 52.5 %
elderly dependency ratio: 7.4 %
potential support ratio: 13.5 (2013)
Median agetotal: 23.7 years
male: 22.8 years
female: 24.6 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate1.05% (2013 est.)
Birth rate18.77 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate5.06 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate-3.26 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanizationurban population: 57% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 2% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major cities - populationMANAGUA (capital) 934,000 (2009)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.7
note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2007 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 21.09 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 24.19 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 72.45 years
male: 70.32 years
female: 74.68 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate2.03 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate72.4% (2006/07)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.2% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS6,900 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deathsfewer than 500 (2009 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 68% of population
total: 85% of population
urban: 2% of population
rural: 32% of population
total: 15% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 63% of population
rural: 37% of population
total: 52% of population
urban: 37% of population
rural: 63% of population
total: 48% of population (2010 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever and malaria (2013)
Nationalitynoun: Nicaraguan(s)
adjective: Nicaraguan
Ethnic groupsmestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 69%, white 17%, black 9%, Amerindian 5%
ReligionsRoman Catholic 58.5%, Protestant 23.2% (Evangelical 21.6%, Moravian 1.6%), Jehovah's Witnesses 0.9%, other 1.7%, none 15.7% (2005 census)
Demographic profileDespite being one of the poorest countries in Latin America, Nicaragua has improved its access to potable water and sanitation and has ameliorated its life expectancy, infant and child mortality, and immunization rates. However, income distribution is very uneven, and the poor, agriculturalists, and indigenous people continue to have less access to healthcare services. Nicaragua's total fertility rate has fallen from around 6 children per woman in 1980 to just above replacement level today, but the high birth rate among adolescents perpetuates a cycle of poverty and low educational attainment.
Nicaraguans emigrate primarily to Costa Rica and to a lesser extent the United States. Nicaraguan men have been migrating seasonally to Costa Rica to harvest bananas and coffee since the early 20th century. Political turmoil, civil war, and natural disasters from the 1970s through the 1990s dramatically increased the flow of refugees and permanent migrants seeking jobs, higher wages, and better social and healthcare benefits. Since 2000, Nicaraguan emigration to Costa Rica has slowed and stabilized. Today roughly 300,000 Nicaraguans are permanent residents of Costa Rica - about 75% of the foreign population - and thousands more migrate seasonally for work, many illegally.
LanguagesSpanish (official) 97.5%, Miskito 1.7%, other 0.8% (1995 census)
note: English and indigenous languages found on the Atlantic coast
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78%
male: 78.1%
female: 77.9% (2005 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2003)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 223,992
percentage: 14 %
note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2005 est.)
Education expenditures4.7% of GDP (2010)
Maternal mortality rate95 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight5.7% (2007)
Health expenditures10.1% of GDP (2009)
Physicians density0.37 physicians/1,000 population (2003)
Hospital bed density1.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate22.2% (2008)

Source: CIA World Factbook
Unless otherwise noted, information in this page is accurate as of February 21, 2013