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Nicaragua Demographics Profile 2014

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Population5,848,641 (July 2014 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 29.3% (male 873,545/female 839,853)
15-24 years: 22.4% (male 657,076/female 652,856)
25-54 years: 38% (male 1,051,656/female 1,173,084)
55-64 years: 5.4% (male 147,405/female 169,618)
65 years and over: 4.8% (male 127,699/female 155,849) (2014 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 58.8 %
youth dependency ratio: 51.4 %
elderly dependency ratio: 7.4 %
potential support ratio: 13.4 (2014 est.)
Median agetotal: 24.2 years
male: 23.3 years
female: 25.1 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate1.02% (2014 est.)
Birth rate18.41 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death rate5.07 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Net migration rate-3.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Urbanizationurban population: 57.5% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.94% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major cities - populationMANAGUA (capital) 970,000 (2011)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth19.7
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2006-07 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 20.36 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 23.36 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 72.72 years
male: 70.57 years
female: 74.98 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate1.99 children born/woman (2014 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate72.4% (2006/07)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.3% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS9,600 (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths100 (2012 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 97.6% of population
rural: 67.8% of population
total: 85% of population
unimproved:
urban: 2.4% of population
rural: 32.2% of population
total: 15% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 63.2% of population
rural: 37% of population
total: 52.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 36.8% of population
rural: 63% of population
total: 47.9% of population (2012 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever and malaria (2013)
Nationalitynoun: Nicaraguan(s)
adjective: Nicaraguan
Ethnic groupsmestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 69%, white 17%, black 9%, Amerindian 5%
ReligionsRoman Catholic 58.5%, Protestant 23.2% (Evangelical 21.6%, Moravian 1.6%), Jehovah's Witnesses 0.9%, other 1.6%, none 15.7% (2005 est.)
Demographic profileDespite being one of the poorest countries in Latin America, Nicaragua has improved its access to potable water and sanitation and has ameliorated its life expectancy, infant and child mortality, and immunization rates. However, income distribution is very uneven, and the poor, agriculturalists, and indigenous people continue to have less access to healthcare services. Nicaragua's total fertility rate has fallen from around 6 children per woman in 1980 to just above replacement level today, but the high birth rate among adolescents perpetuates a cycle of poverty and low educational attainment.
Nicaraguans emigrate primarily to Costa Rica and to a lesser extent the United States. Nicaraguan men have been migrating seasonally to Costa Rica to harvest bananas and coffee since the early 20th century. Political turmoil, civil war, and natural disasters from the 1970s through the 1990s dramatically increased the flow of refugees and permanent migrants seeking jobs, higher wages, and better social and healthcare benefits. Since 2000, Nicaraguan emigration to Costa Rica has slowed and stabilized. Today roughly 300,000 Nicaraguans are permanent residents of Costa Rica - about 75% of the foreign population - and thousands more migrate seasonally for work, many illegally.
LanguagesSpanish (official) 95.3%, Miskito 2.2%, Mestizo of the Caribbean coast 2%, other 0.5%
note: English and indigenous languages found on the Caribbean coast (2005 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78%
male: 78.1%
female: 77.9% (2005 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 11 years
male: 10 years
female: 11 years (2002)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 223,992
percentage: 14 %
note: data represents children ages 5-17 (2005 est.)
Education expenditures4.6% of GDP (2010)
Maternal mortality rate95 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight5.7% (2007)
Health expenditures10.1% of GDP (2009)
Physicians density0.37 physicians/1,000 population (2003)
Hospital bed density1.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate22.2% (2008)

Source: CIA World Factbook
Unless otherwise noted, information in this page is accurate as of August 23, 2014