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Indonesia Geography Profile 2017

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LocationSoutheastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates5 00 S, 120 00 E
Map referencesSoutheast Asia
Areatotal: 1,904,569 sq km
land: 1,811,569 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 2,958 km
border countries (3): Timor-Leste 253 km, Malaysia 1,881 km, Papua New Guinea 824 km
Coastline54,716 km
Maritime claimsmeasured from claimed archipelagic straight baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climatetropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Terrainmostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 367 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 4,884 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land useagricultural land: 31.2%
arable land 13%; permanent crops 12.1%; permanent pasture 6.1%
forest: 51.7%
other: 17.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land67,220 sq km (2012)
Population distributionmajor concentration on the island of Java, which is considered one of the most densely populated places on earth; of the outer islands (those surrounding Java and Bali), Sumatra contains some of the most significant clusters, particularly in the south near the Selat Sunda, and along the northeastern coast near Medan; the cities of Makasar (Sulawesi), Banjarmasin (Kalimantan) are also noteworthy
Natural hazardsoccasional floods; severe droughts; tsunamis; earthquakes; volcanoes; forest fires
volcanism: Indonesia contains the most volcanoes of any country in the world - some 76 are historically active; significant volcanic activity occurs on Java, Sumatra, the Sunda Islands, Halmahera Island, Sulawesi Island, Sangihe Island, and in the Banda Sea; Merapi (elev. 2,968 m), Indonesia's most active volcano and in eruption since 2010, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Agung, Awu, Karangetang, Krakatau (Krakatoa), Makian, Raung, and Tambora
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography - noteaccording to Indonesia's National Coordinating Agency for Survey and Mapping, the total number of islands in the archipelago is 13,466, of which 922 are permanently inhabited (Indonesia is the world's largest country comprised solely of islands); the country straddles the equator and occupies a strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean; despite having the fourth largest population in the world, Indonesia is the most heavily forested region on earth after the Amazon

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on July 9, 2017

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