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Indonesia Economy Profile 2013

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Economy - overviewIndonesia, a vast polyglot nation, grew more than 6% annually in 2010-12. The government made economic advances under the first administration of President YUDHOYONO (2004-09), introducing significant reforms in the financial sector, including tax and customs reforms, the use of Treasury bills, and capital market development and supervision. During the global financial crisis, Indonesia outperformed its regional neighbors and joined China and India as the only G20 members posting growth in 2009. The government has promoted fiscally conservative policies, resulting in a debt-to-GDP ratio of less than 25%, a fiscal deficit below 3%, and historically low rates of inflation. Fitch and Moody's upgraded Indonesia's credit rating to investment grade in December 2011. Indonesia still struggles with poverty and unemployment, inadequate infrastructure, corruption, a complex regulatory environment, and unequal resource distribution among regions. The government in 2013 faces the ongoing challenge of improving Indonesia''s insufficient infrastructure to remove impediments to economic growth, labor unrest over wages, and reducing its fuel subsidy program in the face of high oil prices.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$1.237 trillion (2012 est.)
$1.164 trillion (2011 est.)
$1.093 trillion (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate)$878.2 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate6.2% (2012 est.)
6.5% (2011 est.)
6.2% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$5,100 (2012 est.)
$4,800 (2011 est.)
$4,600 (2010 est.)
note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving32.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
33.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
33% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 54.6%
government consumption: 8.9%
investment in fixed capital: 33.2%
investment in inventories: 2.2%
exports of goods and services: 24.3%
imports of goods and services: -25.8%
(2012 est.)
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 14.4%
industry: 47%
services: 38.6% (2012 est.)
Population below poverty line11.7% (2012 est.)
Labor force118.1 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 38.9%
industry: 22.2%
services: 47.9% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate6.1% (2012 est.)
6.6% (2011 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 22.2%
male: 21.6%
female: 23% (2009)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 29.9% (2009)
Distribution of family income - Gini index36.8 (2009)
39.4 (2005)
Investment (gross fixed)33.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
Budgetrevenues: $164 billion
expenditures: $180.9 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues18.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt23% of GDP (2012 est.)
22.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)4.3% (2012 est.)
5.4% (2011 est.)
Central bank discount rate6.37% (31 December 2010)
6.46% (31 December 2009)
note: this figure represents the 3-month SBI rate; the Bank of Indonesia has not employed the one-month SBI since September 2010
Commercial bank prime lending rate11.8% (31 December 2012 est.)
12.4% (31 December 2011 est.)
note: these figures represent the average annualized rate on working capital loans
Stock of narrow money$87.04 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$79.73 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of broad money$355.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$317.3 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$350 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$307.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$426.8 billion (31 December 2012)
$390.1 billion (31 December 2011)
$360.4 billion (31 December 2010)
Agriculture - productsrubber and similar products, palm oil, poultry, beef, forest products, shrimp, cocoa, coffee, medicinal herbs, essential oil, fish and its similar products, and spices
Industriespetroleum and natural gas, textiles, automotive, electrical appliances, apparel, footwear, mining, cement, medical instuments and appliances, handicrafts, chemical fertilizers, plywood, rubber, processed food, jewelry, and tourism
Industrial production growth rate5.2% (2012 est.)
Current Account Balance-$20.73 billion (2012 est.)
$2.069 billion (2011 est.)
Exports$187 billion (2012 est.)
$191.1 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commoditiesoil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
Exports - partnersJapan 15.9%, China 11.4%, Singapore 9%, South Korea 7.9%, US 7.8%, India 6.6%, Malaysia 5.9% (2012)
Imports$178.5 billion (2012 est.)
$157.3 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commoditiesmachinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partnersChina 15.3%, Singapore 13.6%, Japan 11.9%, Malaysia 6.4%, South Korea 6.2%, US 6.1%, Thailand 6% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$112.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$110.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external$251.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$225.4 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$192.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$173.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$14.93 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
$9.502 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Exchange ratesIndonesian rupiah (IDR) per US dollar -
9,386.6 (2012 est.)
8,770.43 (2011 est.)
9,090.4 (2010 est.)
10,389.9 (2009)
9,698.9 (2008)
Fiscal yearcalendar year

Source: CIA World Factbook
Unless otherwise noted, information in this page is accurate as of February 21, 2013