GINI index (World Bank estimate) - Country Ranking

Definition: Gini index measures the extent to which the distribution of income (or, in some cases, consumption expenditure) among individuals or households within an economy deviates from a perfectly equal distribution. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual or household. The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality.

Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/index.htm).

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 South Africa 63.38 2011
2 Namibia 60.97 2009
3 Haiti 60.79 2012
4 Botswana 60.46 2009
5 Suriname 57.61 1999
6 Central African Republic 56.24 2008
7 Comoros 55.93 2004
8 Zambia 55.62 2010
9 Lesotho 54.18 2010
10 Honduras 53.67 2013
11 Colombia 53.49 2013
12 Belize 53.26 1999
13 Brazil 52.87 2013
14 Guatemala 52.35 2011
15 Panama 51.67 2013
16 Swaziland 51.45 2009
17 Rwanda 51.34 2010
18 Guinea-Bissau 50.66 2010
19 Chile 50.45 2013
20 Costa Rica 49.18 2013
21 Kenya 48.51 2005
22 Paraguay 48.30 2013
23 Mexico 48.07 2012
24 Bolivia 48.06 2013
25 The Gambia 47.33 2003
26 Ecuador 47.29 2013
27 Cabo Verde 47.19 2007
28 Dominican Republic 47.07 2013
29 Venezuela 46.94 2006
30 Malaysia 46.26 2009
31 Malawi 46.12 2010
32 Solomon Islands 46.10 2005
33 Togo 46.02 2011
34 Nicaragua 45.73 2009
35 Mozambique 45.58 2008
36 Jamaica 45.46 2004
37 Djibouti 45.13 2012
38 Peru 44.73 2013
39 Guyana 44.55 1998
40 Macedonia 44.05 2008
41 Papua New Guinea 43.88 2009
42 El Salvador 43.51 2013
43 Benin 43.44 2011
44 Chad 43.32 2011
45 Côte d'Ivoire 43.18 2008
46 Philippines 43.04 2012
47 Nigeria 42.97 2009
48 Cameroon 42.82 2007
49 Fiji 42.78 2008
49 Israel 42.78 2010
51 Seychelles 42.77 2006
51 Ghana 42.77 2005
53 Angola 42.72 2008
54 Samoa 42.69 2008
55 St. Lucia 42.58 1995
56 Uganda 42.37 2012
57 Argentina 42.28 2013
58 Gabon 42.18 2005
59 Dem. Rep. Congo 42.10 2012
60 China 42.06 2010
61 Uruguay 41.87 2013
62 Russia 41.59 2012
63 United States 41.06 2013
64 Turkmenistan 40.77 1998
65 Morocco 40.72 2007
66 Madagascar 40.63 2010
67 Senegal 40.28 2011
68 Trinidad and Tobago 40.27 1992
69 Turkey 40.17 2012
70 Congo 40.16 2011
71 Georgia 40.03 2013
72 Burkina Faso 39.76 2009
73 Thailand 39.26 2012
74 Vietnam 38.70 2012
75 Bhutan 38.65 2012
76 Sri Lanka 38.58 2012
77 Tonga 38.10 2009
78 Lao PDR 37.89 2012
79 Tanzania 37.78 2011
80 Kiribati 37.61 2006
81 Mauritania 37.48 2008
82 Iran 37.35 2013
83 Vanuatu 37.18 2010
84 Greece 36.68 2012
85 Liberia 36.48 2007
86 Portugal 36.04 2012
87 Bulgaria 36.01 2012
88 Spain 35.89 2012
88 Yemen 35.89 2005
90 Mauritius 35.84 2012
91 Tunisia 35.81 2010
92 Syrian Arab Republic 35.77 2004
93 Indonesia 35.57 2010
94 Latvia 35.48 2012
95 Sudan 35.39 2009
96 Algeria 35.33 1995
97 Uzbekistan 35.27 2003
98 Italy 35.16 2012
99 Lithuania 35.15 2012
100 Australia 34.94 2010
101 Luxembourg 34.79 2012
102 Cyprus 34.31 2012
103 Sierra Leone 33.99 2011
104 India 33.90 2009
105 Mongolia 33.75 2012
106 Guinea 33.73 2012
107 Canada 33.68 2010
108 Jordan 33.66 2010
109 Burundi 33.36 2006
110 Montenegro 33.19 2013
111 Ethiopia 33.17 2010
112 Estonia 33.15 2012
113 France 33.10 2012
114 Bosnia and Herzegovina 33.04 2007
114 Mali 33.04 2009
116 Nepal 32.75 2010
117 United Kingdom 32.57 2012
118 Ireland 32.52 2012
119 Poland 32.39 2012
120 Japan 32.11 2008
121 Croatia 31.98 2011
121 Bangladesh 31.98 2010
123 Switzerland 31.64 2012
124 Timor-Leste 31.56 2007
125 Armenia 31.54 2013
126 Niger 31.45 2011
127 São Tomé and Principe 30.82 2010
128 Tajikistan 30.77 2009
129 Cambodia 30.76 2012
130 Egypt 30.75 2008
131 Hungary 30.55 2012
132 Austria 30.48 2012
133 Germany 30.13 2011
134 Serbia 29.65 2010
135 Pakistan 29.59 2010
136 Iraq 29.54 2012
137 Denmark 29.08 2012
138 Albania 28.96 2012
139 Moldova 28.53 2013
140 Netherlands 27.99 2012
141 Belgium 27.59 2012
142 Kyrgyz Republic 27.37 2012
143 Romania 27.33 2012
144 Sweden 27.32 2012
145 Finland 27.12 2012
146 Iceland 26.94 2012
147 Kazakhstan 26.35 2013
148 Czech Republic 26.13 2012
149 Slovak Republic 26.12 2012
150 Belarus 26.01 2012
151 Norway 25.90 2012
152 Slovenia 25.59 2012
153 Ukraine 24.55 2013
154 Azerbaijan 16.64 2005

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Limitations and Exceptions: Gini coefficients are not unique. It is possible for two different Lorenz curves to give rise to the same Gini coefficient. Furthermore it is possible for the Gini coefficient of a developing country to rise (due to increasing inequality of income) while the number of people in absolute poverty decreases. This is because the Gini coefficient measures relative, not absolute, wealth. Another limitation of the Gini coefficient is that it is not additive across groups, i.e. the total Gini of a society is not equal to the sum of the Gini's for its sub-groups. Thus, country-level Gini coefficients cannot be aggregated into regional or global Gini's, although a Gini coefficient can be computed for the aggregate. Because the underlying household surveys differ in methods and types of welfare measures collected, data are not strictly comparable across countries or even across years within a country. Two sources of non-comparability should be noted for distributions of income in particular. First, the surveys can differ in many respects, including whether they use income or consumption expenditure as the living standard indicator. The distribution of income is typically more unequal than the distribution of consumption. In addition, the definitions of income used differ more often among surveys. Consumption is usually a much better welfare indicator, particularly in developing countries. Second, households differ in size (number of members) and in the extent of income sharing among members. And individuals differ in age and consumption needs. Differences among countries in these respects may bias comparisons of distribution. World Bank staff have made an effort to ensure that the data are as comparable as possible. Wherever possible, consumption has been used rather than income. Income distribution and Gini indexes for high-income economies are calculated directly from the Luxembourg Income Study database, using an estimation method consistent with that applied for developing countries.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The Gini index measures the area between the Lorenz curve and a hypothetical line of absolute equality, expressed as a percentage of the maximum area under the line. A Lorenz curve plots the cumulative percentages of total income received against the cumulative number of recipients, starting with the poorest individual. Thus a Gini index of 0 represents perfect equality, while an index of 100 implies perfect inequality. The Gini index provides a convenient summary measure of the degree of inequality. Data on the distribution of income or consumption come from nationally representative household surveys. Where the original data from the household survey were available, they have been used to calculate the income or consumption shares by quintile. Otherwise, shares have been estimated from the best available grouped data. The distribution data have been adjusted for household size, providing a more consistent measure of per capita income or consumption. No adjustment has been made for spatial differences in cost of living within countries, because the data needed for such calculations are generally unavailable. For further details on the estimation method for low- and middle-income economies, see Ravallion and Chen (1996). Survey year is the year in which the underlying household survey data were collected or, when the data collection period bridged two calendar years, the year in which most of the data were collected.

Periodicity: Annual