Poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 a day (2011 PPP) (% of population) - Country Ranking

Definition: Poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 a day is the percentage of the population living on less than $1.90 a day at 2011 international prices. As a result of revisions in PPP exchange rates, poverty rates for individual countries cannot be compared with poverty rates reported in earlier editions. Note: five countries -- Bangladesh, Cabo Verde, Cambodia, Jordan, and Lao PDR -- use the 2005 PPP conversion factors and corresponding $1.25 a day and $2 a day poverty lines. This is due to the large deviations in the rate of change in PPP factors relative to the rate of change in domestic consumer price indexes. See Box 1.1 in the Global Monitoring Report 2015/2016 (http://www.worldbank.org/en/publication/global-monitoring-report) for a detailed explanation.

Source: World Bank, Development Research Group. Data are based on primary household survey data obtained from government statistical agencies and World Bank country departments. Data for high-income economies are from the Luxembourg Income Study database. For more information and methodology, please see PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet/index.htm).

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Madagascar 81.76 2010
2 Burundi 77.65 2006
3 Dem. Rep. Congo 77.18 2012
4 Malawi 70.91 2010
5 Mozambique 68.74 2008
6 Liberia 68.64 2007
7 Guinea-Bissau 67.08 2010
8 Uzbekistan 66.79 2003
9 Central African Republic 66.27 2008
10 Zambia 64.43 2010
11 Rwanda 60.25 2010
12 Lesotho 59.65 2010
13 Burkina Faso 55.29 2009
14 Togo 54.18 2011
15 Haiti 53.91 2012
16 Nigeria 53.47 2009
17 Benin 53.11 2011
18 Sierra Leone 52.33 2011
19 Niger 50.34 2011
20 Mali 49.25 2009
21 Timor-Leste 46.76 2007
22 Tanzania 46.60 2011
23 Solomon Islands 45.60 2005
24 The Gambia 45.29 2003
25 Bangladesh 43.65 2010
26 Turkmenistan 42.26 1998
27 Swaziland 42.03 2009
28 Papua New Guinea 39.31 2009
29 Chad 38.43 2011
30 Senegal 37.98 2011
31 St. Lucia 35.83 1995
32 Guinea 35.27 2012
33 São Tomé and Principe 33.89 2010
34 Kenya 33.60 2005
35 Ethiopia 33.54 2010
36 Uganda 33.24 2012
37 Angola 30.13 2008
38 Lao PDR 29.95 2012
39 Cameroon 29.27 2007
40 Côte d'Ivoire 29.02 2008
41 Congo 28.71 2011
42 Ghana 25.15 2005
43 Suriname 23.38 1999
44 Namibia 22.60 2009
45 India 21.25 2011
46 Honduras 18.93 2013
47 Djibouti 18.32 2012
48 Botswana 18.24 2009
49 Cabo Verde 17.57 2007
50 South Africa 16.56 2011
51 Indonesia 15.90 2010
52 Vanuatu 15.36 2010
53 Nepal 14.95 2010
54 Sudan 14.92 2009
55 Kiribati 14.14 2006
56 Guyana 14.00 1998
57 Belize 13.92 1999
58 Comoros 13.47 2004
59 Philippines 13.11 2012
60 Guatemala 11.53 2011
61 Georgia 11.49 2013
62 China 11.18 2010
63 Mauritania 10.91 2008
64 Nicaragua 10.83 2009
65 Venezuela 9.24 2006
66 Pakistan 8.30 2010
67 Gabon 7.97 2005
68 Bolivia 7.70 2013
69 Cambodia 6.15 2012
70 Colombia 6.12 2013
71 Brazil 4.87 2013
72 Tajikistan 4.74 2009
73 Ecuador 4.43 2013
74 Peru 3.70 2013
75 Fiji 3.60 2008
76 Trinidad and Tobago 3.41 1992
77 El Salvador 3.25 2013
78 Vietnam 3.23 2012
79 Morocco 3.12 2007
80 Kyrgyz Republic 2.91 2012
81 Panama 2.86 2013
82 Mexico 2.68 2012
83 Armenia 2.44 2013
84 Dominican Republic 2.32 2013
85 Bhutan 2.20 2012
86 Paraguay 2.19 2013
87 Bulgaria 2.03 2012
88 Tunisia 1.99 2010
89 Argentina 1.75 2013
90 Jamaica 1.70 2004
91 Sri Lanka 1.69 2012
91 Montenegro 1.69 2013
93 Costa Rica 1.68 2013
94 Latvia 1.38 2012
95 Macedonia 1.33 2008
96 Tonga 1.09 2009
97 Albania 1.06 2012
98 Lithuania 1.03 2012
99 Estonia 0.99 2012
100 Chile 0.92 2013
101 Croatia 0.85 2011
102 Samoa 0.83 2008
103 Mauritius 0.53 2012
104 Mongolia 0.38 2012
105 Seychelles 0.37 2006
106 Uruguay 0.34 2013
107 Malaysia 0.28 2009
108 Hungary 0.26 2012
108 Turkey 0.26 2012
110 Slovak Republic 0.24 2012
111 Jordan 0.13 2010
112 Serbia 0.10 2010
113 Iran 0.08 2013
113 Moldova 0.08 2013
115 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.06 2007
115 Thailand 0.06 2012
115 Czech Republic 0.06 2012
118 Kazakhstan 0.04 2013
118 Russia 0.04 2012
120 Slovenia 0.03 2012
121 Poland 0.02 2012
122 Azerbaijan 0.00 2005
122 Romania 0.00 2012
122 Belarus 0.00 2012
122 Ukraine 0.00 2013

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Development Relevance: The World Bank Group is committed to reducing extreme poverty to 3 percent or less, globally, by 2030. Monitoring poverty is important on the global development agenda as well as on the national development agenda of many countries. The World Bank produced its first global poverty estimates for developing countries for World Development Report 1990: Poverty (World Bank 1990) using household survey data for 22 countries (Ravallion, Datt, and van de Walle 1991). Since then there has been considerable expansion in the number of countries that field household income and expenditure surveys. The World Bank's Development Research Group maintains a database that is updated annually as new survey data become available (and thus may contain more recent data or revisions) and conducts a major reassessment of progress against poverty every year. PovcalNet is an interactive computational tool that allows users to replicate these internationally comparable $1.90 and $3.10 a day global, regional and country-level poverty estimates and to compute poverty measures for custom country groupings and for different poverty lines. The Poverty and Equity Data portal provides access to the database and user-friendly dashboards with graphs and interactive maps that visualize trends in key poverty and inequality indicators for different regions and countries. The country dashboards display trends in poverty measures based on the national poverty lines alongside the internationally comparable estimates, produced from and consistent with PovcalNet.

Limitations and Exceptions: Five countries – Bangladesh, Cabo Verde, Cambodia, Jordan, and Lao PDR -- use the 2005 PPP conversion factors and corresponding $1.25 a day and $2 a day poverty lines. This is due to the large deviations in the rate of change in PPP factors relative to the rate of change in domestic consumer price indexes. See Box 1.1 in the Global Monitoring Report 2015/2016 (http://www.worldbank.org/en/publication/global-monitoring-report) for a detailed explanation. The World Bank’s internationally comparable poverty monitoring database now draws on income or detailed consumption data from more than one thousand household surveys across 128 developing countries and 21 high income countries (as defined in 1990). While income distribution data are published for all countries with data available, poverty data are published for developing countries only. Despite progress in the last decade, the challenges of measuring poverty remain. The timeliness, frequency, quality, and comparability of household surveys need to increase substantially, particularly in the poorest countries. The availability and quality of poverty monitoring data remains low in small states, countries with fragile situations, and low-income countries and even some middle-income countries. The low frequency and lack of comparability of the data available in some countries create uncertainty over the magnitude of poverty reduction. Besides the frequency and timeliness of survey data, other data quality issues arise in measuring household living standards. The surveys ask detailed questions on sources of income and how it was spent, which must be carefully recorded by trained personnel. Income is generally more difficult to measure accurately, and consumption comes closer to the notion of living standards. And income can vary over time even if living standards do not. But consumption data are not always available: the latest estimates reported here use consumption data for about two-thirds of countries. However, even similar surveys may not be strictly comparable because of differences in timing or in the quality and training of enumerators. Comparisons of countries at different levels of development also pose a potential problem because of differences in the relative importance of the consumption of nonmarket goods. The local market value of all consumption in kind (including own production, particularly important in underdeveloped rural economies) should be included in total consumption expenditure but may not be. Most survey data now include valuations for consumption or income from own production, but valuation methods vary.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: International comparisons of poverty estimates entail both conceptual and practical problems. Countries have different definitions of poverty, and consistent comparisons across countries can be difficult. Local poverty lines tend to have higher purchasing power in rich countries, where more generous standards are used, than in poor countries. Since World Development Report 1990, the World Bank has aimed to apply a common standard in measuring extreme poverty, anchored to what poverty means in the world's poorest countries. The welfare of people living in different countries can be measured on a common scale by adjusting for differences in the purchasing power of currencies. The commonly used $1 a day standard, measured in 1985 international prices and adjusted to local currency using purchasing power parities (PPPs), was chosen for World Development Report 1990 because it was typical of the poverty lines in low-income countries at the time. As differences in the cost of living across the world evolve, the international poverty line has to be periodically updated using new PPP price data to reflect these changes. The last change was in October 2015, when we adopted $1.90 as the international poverty line using the 2011 PPP. Prior to that, the 2008 update set the international poverty line at $1.25 using the 2005 PPP. Poverty measures based on international poverty lines attempt to hold the real value of the poverty line constant across countries, as is done when making comparisons over time. Corresponding to the $2 a day (2005 PPP) poverty line, the equivalent poverty line based on 2011 PPP is $3.10 a day. Early editions of World Development Indicators used PPPs from the Penn World Tables to convert values in local currency to equivalent purchasing power measured in U.S dollars. Later editions used 1993, 2005, and 2011 consumption PPP estimates produced by the World Bank. The current extreme poverty line is set at $1.90 a day in 2011 PPP terms, which represents the mean of the poverty lines found in the poorest 15 countries ranked by per capita consumption. The new poverty line maintains the same standard for extreme poverty - the poverty line typical of the poorest countries in the world - but updates it using the latest information on the cost of living in developing countries. As a result of revisions in PPP exchange rates, poverty rates for individual countries cannot be compared with poverty rates reported in earlier editions. The statistics reported here are based on consumption data or, when unavailable, on income surveys. Analysis of some 20 countries for which income and consumption expenditure data were both available from the same surveys found income to yield a higher mean than consumption but also higher inequality. When poverty measures based on consumption and income were compared, the two effects roughly cancelled each other out: there was no significant statistical difference.

Periodicity: Annual