Bribery incidence (% of firms experiencing at least one bribe payment request) - Country Ranking

Definition: Bribery incidence is the percentage of firms experiencing at least one bribe payment request across 6 public transactions dealing with utilities access, permits, licenses, and taxes.

Source: World Bank, Enterprise Surveys (http://www.enterprisesurveys.org/).

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Liberia 70.50 2009
2 Syrian Arab Republic 69.60 2009
3 Cambodia 69.40 2013
4 Yemen 64.30 2013
5 Guinea 60.70 2006
6 Kyrgyz Republic 59.80 2013
7 Dem. Rep. Congo 56.50 2013
8 Angola 51.30 2010
9 Ukraine 50.40 2013
10 Bangladesh 47.70 2013
11 Afghanistan 46.80 2014
12 Myanmar 42.90 2014
13 Vietnam 38.30 2009
14 Congo 37.50 2009
15 Lao PDR 37.30 2012
15 Iraq 37.30 2011
17 Morocco 37.20 2013
18 Tajikistan 36.30 2013
19 Chad 35.00 2009
20 Benin 34.50 2009
21 Cameroon 33.90 2009
22 Mongolia 33.40 2013
23 Madagascar 32.90 2013
24 Paraguay 31.50 2010
25 Moldova 31.00 2013
26 Pakistan 30.80 2013
27 Samoa 30.50 2009
28 Burundi 30.30 2014
29 Nigeria 28.90 2014
29 Mauritania 28.90 2014
31 Guinea-Bissau 27.60 2006
32 Mali 27.30 2010
33 Indonesia 26.90 2009
34 Ethiopia 26.80 2015
35 Kazakhstan 26.70 2013
36 Kenya 26.40 2013
37 Philippines 25.60 2009
38 The Gambia 25.10 2006
39 Tonga 24.90 2009
40 Malawi 24.20 2014
41 Gabon 23.20 2009
42 India 22.70 2014
43 Uganda 22.00 2013
44 The Bahamas 21.00 2010
44 Central African Republic 21.00 2011
46 Tanzania 20.80 2013
47 Albania 19.50 2013
48 Côte d'Ivoire 19.30 2009
48 Jamaica 19.30 2010
50 Lebanon 19.20 2013
51 Togo 19.10 2009
52 Montenegro 18.80 2013
52 Algeria 18.80 2007
54 Ghana 18.70 2013
55 Niger 18.50 2009
56 Sierra Leone 18.10 2009
57 Sudan 17.60 2014
57 Mexico 17.60 2010
59 Egypt 17.40 2013
60 Dominican Republic 16.30 2010
61 Zimbabwe 16.20 2011
62 Timor-Leste 16.10 2009
63 Azerbaijan 15.90 2013
63 Peru 15.90 2010
65 Zambia 15.80 2013
66 Guyana 14.90 2010
67 Lesotho 14.60 2009
68 Nepal 14.40 2013
69 Russia 14.20 2012
70 Jordan 12.70 2013
71 Mozambique 12.40 2007
72 Vanuatu 11.90 2009
73 Brazil 11.70 2009
74 China 11.60 2012
74 St. Lucia 11.60 2010
76 Guatemala 11.30 2010
77 Senegal 11.10 2014
77 Djibouti 11.10 2013
79 Bosnia and Herzegovina 10.70 2013
79 Bolivia 10.70 2010
81 Trinidad and Tobago 10.50 2010
81 Fiji 10.50 2009
83 Lithuania 10.40 2013
84 Venezuela 10.30 2010
84 Argentina 10.30 2010
84 Tunisia 10.30 2013
87 Sri Lanka 10.00 2011
88 Burkina Faso 9.80 2009
88 Romania 9.80 2013
90 Namibia 9.10 2014
91 Belarus 8.90 2013
91 Bulgaria 8.90 2013
93 Costa Rica 8.70 2010
94 Nicaragua 8.60 2010
95 Botswana 8.40 2010
96 Honduras 8.10 2010
97 Macedonia 7.50 2013
98 Panama 7.10 2010
98 Armenia 7.10 2013
100 Uzbekistan 7.00 2013
101 Rwanda 6.90 2011
101 Antigua and Barbuda 6.90 2010
103 Grenada 6.60 2010
104 Belize 6.20 2010
105 Serbia 6.10 2013
106 Dominica 5.80 2010
107 Swaziland 5.70 2006
108 Turkey 5.40 2013
109 Suriname 4.90 2010
109 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 4.90 2010
111 Slovak Republic 4.40 2013
112 El Salvador 4.30 2010
113 South Africa 4.20 2007
114 Croatia 3.90 2013
114 Mauritius 3.90 2009
116 Latvia 3.50 2013
116 Czech Republic 3.50 2013
118 Uruguay 2.20 2010
118 St. Kitts and Nevis 2.20 2010
118 Georgia 2.20 2013
118 Colombia 2.20 2010
122 Hungary 2.10 2013
123 Cabo Verde 2.00 2009
124 Sweden 1.90 2014
125 Poland 1.80 2013
126 Ecuador 1.70 2010
127 Chile 1.30 2010
128 Barbados 1.20 2010
129 Bhutan 0.90 2015
130 Slovenia 0.20 2013
131 Israel 0.10 2013
132 Eritrea 0.00 2009
132 Estonia 0.00 2013

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Development Relevance: Firms evaluating investment options, governments interested in improving business conditions, and economists seeking to explain economic performance have all grappled with defining and measuring the business environment. The firm-level data from Enterprise Surveys provide a useful tool for benchmarking economies across a large number of indicators measured at the firm level. Corruption by public officials may present a major administrative and financial burden on firms. Corruption creates an unfavorable business environment by undermining the operational efficiency of firms and raising the costs and risks associated with doing business. In some countries doing business requires informal payments to "get things done" in customs, taxes, licenses, regulations, services, and the like. Such corruption can harm the business environment by distorting policymaking, undermining government credibility, and diverting public resources.

Limitations and Exceptions: The sampling weights take care of the varying probabilities of selection across different strata. Under certain conditions, estimates' precision under stratified random sampling will be higher than under simple random sampling (lower standard errors may result from the estimation procedure). The strata for Enterprise Surveys are firm size, business sector, and geographic location within a country. Firm size levels are 5-19 (small), 20-99 (medium), and 100+ employees (large-sized firms). Since in most economies, the majority of firms are small and medium-sized, Enterprise Surveys oversample large firms since larger firms tend to be engines of job creation. Sector breakdown is usually manufacturing, retail, and other services. For larger economies, specific manufacturing sub-sectors are selected as additional strata on the basis of employment, value-added, and total number of establishments figures. Geographic locations within a country are selected based on which cities/regions collectively contain the majority of economic activity. Ideally the survey sample frame is derived from the universe of eligible firms obtained from the country's statistical office. Sometimes the master list of firms is obtained from other government agencies such as tax or business licensing authorities. In some cases, the list of firms is obtained from business associations or marketing databases. In a few cases, the sample frame is created via block enumeration, where the World Bank "manually" constructs a list of eligible firms after 1) partitioning a country's cities of major economic activity into clusters and blocks, 2) randomly selecting a subset of blocks which will then be enumerated. In surveys conducted since 2005-06, survey documentation which explains the source of the sample frame and any special circumstances encountered during survey fieldwork are included with the collected datasets. ).

Original Source Notes: All surveys were administered using the Enterprise Surveys methodology as outlined in the Methodology page which can be found from www.enterprisesurveys.org.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: The World Bank Enterprise Surveys gather firm-level data on the business environment of individual economies across the world and assess how business environment constraints affect productivity and job creation. The World Bank has collected this data from face-to-face interviews with business owners and top managers in over 110,000 firms in 128 economies. Of this total fully comparable data is available for 122 countries (close to 80,000 interviews) which are the source for the indicators of this section. The surveys cover a broad range of business environment topics including access to finance, corruption, infrastructure, informality, regulations and taxes, crime, competition, trade, and performance measures. A standardized survey, including country-specific questions, is typically conducted in an emerging economy every 3-4 years. For several countries, firm-level panel data are also available, allowing policymakers to track changes in the business environment over time. Confidentiality of the survey respondents and the sensitive information they provide is necessary to ensure the greatest degree of survey participation, integrity and confidence in the quality of the data. Surveys are usually carried out in cooperation with business organizations and government agencies promoting job creation and economic growth, but confidentiality is never compromised. Typically 1200-1800 interviews are conducted in larger economies, 360 interviews are conducted in medium-sized economies, and for smaller economies, 150 interviews take place. The manufacturing and services sectors are the primary business sectors of interest. This corresponds to firms classified with ISIC codes 15-37, 45, 50-52, 55, 60-64, and 72 (ISIC Rev.3.1). Formal (registered) companies with 5 or more employees are targeted for interview. Services firms include construction, retail, wholesale, hotels, restaurants, transport, storage, communications, and IT. Firms with 100% government/state ownership are not eligible to participate in an Enterprise Survey. In each country, businesses in the cities/regions of major economic activity are interviewed. The sampling methodology for Enterprise Surveys is stratified random sampling with replacement. Stratification variables include sector, firm size and geographic area.. In a stratified random sample, all population units are grouped within homogeneous groups and simple random samples are selected within each group. This method allows computing estimates for each of the strata with a specified level of precision while population estimates can also be estimated by properly weighting individual observations.

Periodicity: Annual