Research and development expenditure (% of GDP) - Country Ranking

Definition: Expenditures for research and development are current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture, and society, and the use of knowledge for new applications. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development.

Source: United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics.

See also: Thematic map, Time series comparison

Find indicator:
Rank Country Value Year
1 Israel 4.21 2013
2 Korea 4.15 2013
3 Japan 3.47 2013
4 Finland 3.31 2013
5 Sweden 3.30 2013
6 Denmark 3.06 2013
7 Switzerland 2.96 2012
8 Germany 2.85 2013
9 Austria 2.83 2014
10 United States 2.81 2012
11 Slovenia 2.59 2013
12 Iceland 2.49 2011
13 Belgium 2.28 2013
14 Australia 2.25 2011
15 France 2.23 2013
16 China 2.01 2013
17 Singapore 2.00 2012
18 Netherlands 1.98 2013
19 Czech Republic 1.91 2013
20 Estonia 1.74 2013
21 Norway 1.66 2013
22 United Kingdom 1.63 2013
23 Canada 1.62 2013
24 Ireland 1.58 2012
25 Hungary 1.41 2013
26 Portugal 1.37 2013
27 Italy 1.26 2013
28 New Zealand 1.25 2011
29 Spain 1.24 2013
30 Luxembourg 1.16 2013
31 Brazil 1.15 2012
32 Russia 1.13 2013
33 Malaysia 1.13 2012
34 Lithuania 0.95 2013
35 Turkey 0.94 2013
36 Malta 0.89 2013
37 Poland 0.87 2013
38 Slovak Republic 0.83 2013
39 India 0.82 2011
40 Croatia 0.81 2013
41 Greece 0.80 2013
42 Kenya 0.79 2010
43 Ukraine 0.76 2013
44 Morocco 0.73 2010
45 South Africa 0.73 2012
46 Hong Kong SAR, China 0.73 2012
47 Serbia 0.73 2013
48 Greenland 0.72 2004
49 Tunisia 0.68 2012
50 Egypt 0.68 2013
51 Belarus 0.67 2013
52 Mali 0.66 2010
53 Bulgaria 0.65 2013
54 Ethiopia 0.61 2013
55 Latvia 0.60 2013
56 Argentina 0.58 2012
57 Gabon 0.58 2009
58 Senegal 0.54 2010
59 Mexico 0.50 2013
60 United Arab Emirates 0.49 2011
61 Uganda 0.48 2010
62 Cyprus 0.48 2013
63 Cuba 0.47 2013
64 Costa Rica 0.47 2011
65 Qatar 0.47 2012
66 Macedonia 0.44 2013
67 Puerto Rico 0.44 2013
68 Jordan 0.43 2008
69 Mozambique 0.42 2010
70 Romania 0.39 2013
71 Thailand 0.39 2011
72 Tanzania 0.38 2010
73 Montenegro 0.38 2013
74 Ghana 0.38 2010
75 Chile 0.36 2012
76 St. Lucia 0.36 1999
77 Moldova 0.35 2013
78 Ecuador 0.34 2011
79 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.33 2013
80 Iran 0.31 2010
81 Nepal 0.30 2010
82 Seychelles 0.30 2005
83 Kuwait 0.30 2013
84 Pakistan 0.29 2013
85 Zambia 0.28 2008
86 Botswana 0.25 2012
87 Armenia 0.24 2013
88 Uruguay 0.23 2012
89 Mongolia 0.23 2013
90 Colombia 0.23 2013
91 Togo 0.22 2012
92 Nigeria 0.22 2007
93 Azerbaijan 0.21 2013
94 Burkina Faso 0.20 2009
95 Vietnam 0.19 2011
96 Mauritius 0.18 2012
97 Panama 0.18 2011
98 Kazakhstan 0.17 2013
99 Oman 0.17 2013
100 Myanmar 0.16 2002
101 Georgia 0.16 2014
102 Bolivia 0.16 2009
103 Sri Lanka 0.16 2010
104 Kyrgyz Republic 0.16 2011
105 Peru 0.16 2004
106 Albania 0.15 2008
107 Namibia 0.14 2010
108 The Gambia 0.13 2011
109 Burundi 0.12 2011
110 St. Vincent and the Grenadines 0.12 2002
111 Tajikistan 0.12 2013
112 Philippines 0.11 2007
113 Madagascar 0.11 2011
114 Paraguay 0.09 2012
115 Indonesia 0.08 2013
116 Dem. Rep. Congo 0.08 2009
117 Saudi Arabia 0.07 2009
118 Cabo Verde 0.07 2011
119 Algeria 0.07 2005
120 Jamaica 0.06 2002
121 Macao SAR, China 0.05 2013
122 Cambodia 0.05 2002
123 Trinidad and Tobago 0.05 2012
124 Guatemala 0.04 2012
125 Bahrain 0.04 2013
126 Honduras 0.04 2004
127 Monaco 0.04 2005
128 Lao PDR 0.04 2002
129 Brunei 0.04 2004
130 Nicaragua 0.03 2002
131 Iraq 0.03 2011
132 El Salvador 0.03 2012
133 Lesotho 0.01 2011

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Development Relevance: Expenditure on research and development (R&D) is a key indicator of government and private sector efforts to obtain competitive advantage in science and technology. Estimates of the resources allocated to R&D are affected by national characteristics such as the periodicity and coverage of national R&D surveys across institutional sectors and industries; and the use of different sampling and estimation methods. R&D typically involves a few large performers, hence R&D surveys use various techniques to maintain up-to-date registers of known performers, while attempting to identify new or occasional performers. R&D expenditures include expenditures from all sources for R&D performed within a country, including capital expenditures and current costs (wages and associated costs of researchers, technicians, and other supporting staff and other current costs, including noncapital purchases of materials, supplies, and minor equipment to support R&D such as utilities, reference materials, subscriptions to libraries and scientific societies, and materials for laboratories). The gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) indicator is used for international comparisons. This consists of the total expenditure (current and capital) on R&D by all resident companies, research institutes, university and government laboratories, etc. It excludes R&D expenditures financed by domestic firms but performed abroad. GERD is here expressed as a share of GDP. Research and development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, and the use of this knowledge to devise new applications. R&D covers three main activities: (1) Basic research - Basic research is experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view (2) Applied research - Applied research is also original investigation undertaken in order to acquire new knowledge; it is, however, directed primarily towards a specific practical aim or objective. (3) Experimental development - Experimental development is systematic work, drawing on existing knowledge gained from research and/or practical experience, which is directed to producing new materials, products or devices, to installing new processes, systems and services, or to improving substantially those already produced or installed.

Limitations and Exceptions: The OECD's Frascati Manual defines research and experimental development as "creative work undertaken on a systemic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development. Data on researchers and technicians in R&D are measured in both full-time equivalent and headcount but are shown in full-time equivalent only. The data are obtained through statistical surveys which are regularly conducted at national level covering R & D performing entities in the private and public sectors.

Statistical Concept and Methodology: Total domestic intramural expenditure on R&D during a given period as a percentage of the GDP (i.e. the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy, including distributive trades and transport, plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products). The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics collects data on researchers, technicians, and expenditure on research and development (R&D) through its biennial R&D survey and from other international partners such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Eurostat, and the Network for Science and Technology Indicators - Ibero-American and Inter-American.

Aggregation method: Weighted average

Periodicity: Annual