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Egypt Geography Profile 2013

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LocationNorthern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula
Geographic coordinates27 00 N, 30 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Areatotal: 1,001,450 sq km
land: 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
Land boundariestotal: 2,665 km
border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 266 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,273 km
Coastline2,450 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatedesert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
Terrainvast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Elevation extremeslowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m
Natural resourcespetroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, rare earth elements, zinc
Land usearable land: 2.87%
permanent crops: 0.79%
other: 96.34% (2011)
Irrigated land34,220 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources57.3 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural)total: 68.3 cu km/yr (8%/6%/86%)
per capita: 973.3 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazardsperiodic droughts; frequent earthquakes; flash floods; landslides; hot, driving windstorms called khamsin occur in spring; dust storms; sandstorms
Environment - current issuesagricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; limited natural freshwater resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notecontrols Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees from Sudan and the Palestinian territories

Source: CIA World Factbook
Unless otherwise noted, information in this page is accurate as of February 21, 2013