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Zambia Demographics Profile 2019

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Population
16,445,079 (July 2018 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years: 45.95% (male 3,796,548 /female 3,759,624)
15-24 years: 20% (male 1,643,364 /female 1,645,713)
25-54 years: 28.79% (male 2,384,765 /female 2,349,877)
55-64 years: 2.95% (male 225,586 /female 260,252)
65 years and over: 2.31% (male 166,224 /female 213,126) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 91.9 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 87.1 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 4.8 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 20.8 (2015 est.)
Median age
total: 16.8 years (2018 est.)
male: 16.7 years
female: 16.9 years
Population growth rate
2.91% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
41.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
12 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization
urban population: 44.1% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 4.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major cities - population
2.647 million LUSAKA (capital) (2019)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth
19.2 years (2013/14 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Infant mortality rate
total: 59.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 64.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 53.9 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 53 years (2018 est.)
male: 51.4 years
female: 54.7 years
Total fertility rate
5.58 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
49% (2013/14)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
11.3% (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
1.2 million (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
17,000 (2018 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 85.6% of population
rural: 51.3% of population
total: 65.4% of population
unimproved: urban: 14.4% of population
rural: 48.7% of population
total: 34.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 55.6% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 35.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 43.9% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 44.4% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 64.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 56.1% of population (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever (2016)
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
Nationality
noun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian
Ethnic groups
Bemba 21%, Tonga 13.6%, Chewa 7.4%, Lozi 5.7%, Nsenga 5.3%, Tumbuka 4.4%, Ngoni 4%, Lala 3.1%, Kaonde 2.9%, Namwanga 2.8%, Lunda (north Western) 2.6%, Mambwe 2.5%, Luvale 2.2%, Lamba 2.1%, Ushi 1.9%, Lenje 1.6%, Bisa 1.6%, Mbunda 1.2%, other 13.8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Religions
Protestant 75.3%, Roman Catholic 20.2%, other 2.7% (includes Muslim Buddhist, Hindu, and Baha'i), none 1.8% (2010 est.)
Demographic profile

Zambia’s poor, youthful population consists primarily of Bantu-speaking people representing nearly 70 different ethnicities. Zambia’s high fertility rate continues to drive rapid population growth, averaging almost 3 percent annually between 2000 and 2010. The country’s total fertility rate has fallen by less than 1.5 children per woman during the last 30 years and still averages among the world’s highest, almost 6 children per woman, largely because of the country’s lack of access to family planning services, education for girls, and employment for women. Zambia also exhibits wide fertility disparities based on rural or urban location, education, and income. Poor, uneducated women from rural areas are more likely to marry young, to give birth early, and to have more children, viewing children as a sign of prestige and recognizing that not all of their children will live to adulthood. HIV/AIDS is prevalent in Zambia and contributes to its low life expectancy.

Zambian emigration is low compared to many other African countries and is comprised predominantly of the well-educated. The small amount of brain drain, however, has a major impact in Zambia because of its limited human capital and lack of educational infrastructure for developing skilled professionals in key fields. For example, Zambia has few schools for training doctors, nurses, and other health care workers. Its spending on education is low compared to other sub-Saharan countries.

Languages
Bemba 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Lozi 5.5%, Chewa 4.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (North Western) 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English (official) 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.7%, unspecified 0.2% (2010 est.)

note: Zambia is said to have over 70 languages, although many of these may be considered dialects; all of Zambia's major languages are members of the Bantu family

Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 63.4%
male: 70.9%
female: 56% (2015 est.)
Education expenditures
NA
Maternal mortality rate
213 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
14.9% (2013)
Health expenditures
5.4% (2015)
Physicians density
0.09 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density
2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
8.1% (2016)

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on December 7, 2019

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