Flag of Uganda

Uganda Demographics Profile

Home > Factbook > Countries > Uganda

43,252,966 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years: 48.21% (male 10,548,913/female 10,304,876)
15-24 years: 20.25% (male 4,236,231/female 4,521,698)
25-54 years: 26.24% (male 5,202,570/female 6,147,304)
55-64 years: 2.91% (male 579,110/female 681,052)
65 years and over: 2.38% (male 442,159/female 589,053) (2020 est.)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 92.3
youth dependency ratio: 88.5
elderly dependency ratio: 3.8
potential support ratio: 26.2 (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 15.7 years
male: 14.9 years
female: 16.5 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
3.34% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
42.3 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
-3.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
urban population: 25% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 5.7% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major cities - population
3.298 million KAMPALA (capital) (2020)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 94.4 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth
18.9 years (2011 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Infant mortality rate
total: 32.6 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 36.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 28.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 68.2 years
male: 66 years
female: 70.5 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
5.54 children born/woman (2020 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
41.8% (2018)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
6.1% (2019 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
1.5 million (2019 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
21,000 (2019 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 92.9% of population
rural: 77.2% of population
total: 80.8% of population
unimproved: urban: 7.1% of population
rural: 22.8% of population
total: 19.2% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 67.8% of population
rural: 26.6% of population
total: 36.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 32.2% of population
rural: 73.4% of population
total: 63.8% of population (2017 est.)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Trypanosomiasis-Gambiense (African sleeping sickness)
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
noun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan
Ethnic groups
Baganda 16.5%, Banyankole 9.6%, Basoga 8.8%, Bakiga 7.1%, Iteso 7%, Langi 6.3%, Bagisu 4.9%, Acholi 4.4%, Lugbara 3.3%, other 32.1% (2014 est.)
Protestant 45.1% (Anglican 32.0%, Pentecostal/Born Again/Evangelical 11.1%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.7%, Baptist .3%), Roman Catholic 39.3%, Muslim 13.7%, other 1.6%, none 0.2% (2014 est.)
Demographic profile

Uganda has one of the youngest and most rapidly growing populations in the world; its total fertility rate is among the world’s highest at 5.8 children per woman. Except in urban areas, actual fertility exceeds women’s desired fertility by one or two children, which is indicative of the widespread unmet need for contraception, lack of government support for family planning, and a cultural preference for large families. High numbers of births, short birth intervals, and the early age of childbearing contribute to Uganda’s high maternal mortality rate. Gender inequities also make fertility reduction difficult; women on average are less-educated, participate less in paid employment, and often have little say in decisions over childbearing and their own reproductive health. However, even if the birth rate were significantly reduced, Uganda’s large pool of women entering reproductive age ensures rapid population growth for decades to come.

Unchecked, population increase will further strain the availability of arable land and natural resources and overwhelm the country’s limited means for providing food, employment, education, health care, housing, and basic services. The country’s north and northeast lag even further behind developmentally than the rest of the country as a result of long-term conflict (the Ugandan Bush War 1981-1986 and more than 20 years of fighting between the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) and Ugandan Government forces), ongoing inter-communal violence, and periodic natural disasters.

Uganda has been both a source of refugees and migrants and a host country for refugees. In 1972, then President Idi AMIN, in his drive to return Uganda to Ugandans, expelled the South Asian population that composed a large share of the country’s business people and bankers. Since the 1970s, thousands of Ugandans have emigrated, mainly to southern Africa or the West, for security reasons, to escape poverty, to search for jobs, and for access to natural resources. The emigration of Ugandan doctors and nurses due to low wages is a particular concern given the country’s shortage of skilled health care workers. Africans escaping conflicts in neighboring states have found refuge in Uganda since the 1950s; the country currently struggles to host tens of thousands from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, and other nearby countries.

English (official language, taught in schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages and the language used most often in the capital), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili (official), Arabic
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 76.5%
male: 82.7%
female: 70.8% (2018)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 10 years (2011)
Education expenditures
2.6% of GDP (2017)
Maternal mortality rate
375 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
10.4% (2016)
Health expenditures
6.3% (2017)
Physicians density
0.17 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density
0.5 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
5.3% (2016)

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on Friday, November 27, 2020

Demographics Comparison