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Tanzania Demographics Profile

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58,552,845 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years: 42.7% (male 12,632,772/female 12,369,115)
15-24 years: 20.39% (male 5,988,208/female 5,948,134)
25-54 years: 30.31% (male 8,903,629/female 8,844,180)
55-64 years: 3.52% (male 954,251/female 1,107,717)
65 years and over: 3.08% (male 747,934/female 1,056,905) (2020 est.)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 85.9
youth dependency ratio: 81
elderly dependency ratio: 4.9
potential support ratio: 20.4 (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 18.2 years
male: 17.9 years
female: 18.4 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
2.71% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
34.6 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
7.1 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
urban population: 35.2% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 5.22% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major cities - population
262,000 Dodoma (legislative capital) (2018), 6.702 million DAR ES SALAAM (administrative capital), 1.120 million Mwanza (2020)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 99.7 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth
19.8 years (2015/16 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Infant mortality rate
total: 36.4 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 38.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 34.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 63.9 years
male: 62.3 years
female: 65.5 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
4.59 children born/woman (2020 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
38.4% (2015/16)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
5.1% (2019 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
1.7 million (2019 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
27,000 (2019 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 92.3% of population
rural: 56.2% of population
total: 68.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 7.7% of population
rural: 43.8% of population
total: 31.8% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 82.1% of population
rural: 29.5% of population
total: 46.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 17.9% of population
rural: 70.5% of population
total: 53.1% of population (2017 est.)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
noun: Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian
Ethnic groups
mainland - African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African
Christian 61.4%, Muslim 35.2%, folk religion 1.8%, other 0.2%, unaffiliated 1.4% (2010 est.)

note: Zanzibar is almost entirely Muslim

Demographic profile

Tanzania has the largest population in East Africa and the lowest population density; almost a third of the population is urban. Tanzania’s youthful population – about two-thirds of the population is under 25 – is growing rapidly because of the high total fertility rate of 4.8 children per woman. Progress in reducing the birth rate has stalled, sustaining the country’s nearly 3% annual growth. The maternal mortality rate has improved since 2000, yet it remains very high because of early and frequent pregnancies, inadequate maternal health services, and a lack of skilled birth attendants – problems that are worse among poor and rural women. Tanzania has made strides in reducing under-5 and infant mortality rates, but a recent drop in immunization threatens to undermine gains in child health. Malaria is a leading killer of children under 5, while HIV is the main source of adult mortality

For Tanzania, most migration is internal, rural to urban movement, while some temporary labor migration from towns to plantations takes place seasonally for harvests. Tanzania was Africa’s largest refugee-hosting country for decades, hosting hundreds of thousands of refugees from the Great Lakes region, primarily Burundi, over the last fifty years. However, the assisted repatriation and naturalization of tens of thousands of Burundian refugees between 2002 and 2014 dramatically reduced the refugee population. Tanzania is increasingly a transit country for illegal migrants from the Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes region who are heading to southern Africa for security reasons and/or economic opportunities. Some of these migrants choose to settle in Tanzania.

Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages

note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources including Arabic and English; it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages

definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic
total population: 77.9%
male: 83.2%
female: 73.1% (2015)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 9 years (2019)
Education expenditures
3.4% of GDP (2014)
Maternal mortality rate
524 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
14.6% (2018)
Health expenditures
3.6% (2017)
Physicians density
0.01 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Hospital bed density
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
8.4% (2016)

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on Friday, November 27, 2020

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