Flag of Tajikistan

Tajikistan Economy Profile 2018

Home > Factbook > Countries > Tajikistan

Economy - overviewTajikistan is a poor, mountainous country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, metals processing, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. The 1992-97 civil war severely damaged an already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Today, Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Less than 7% of the land area is arable and cotton is the most important crop. Tajikistan imports approximately 70% of its food. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, antimony, and tungsten. Industry consists mainly of small obsolete factories in food processing and light industry, substantial hydropower facilities, and a large aluminum plant - currently operating well below its capacity.

Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan, more than one million Tajik citizens work abroad - roughly 90% in Russia - supporting families back home through remittances that in 2014 were equivalent to nearly 50% of GDP. Some experts estimate the value of narcotics transiting Tajikistan is equivalent to 30%-50% of GDP.

Since the end of the civil war, the country has pursued half-hearted reforms and privatizations in the economic sphere, but the poor business climate remains a hurdle to attracting foreign investment. Tajikistan has sought to develop its substantial hydroelectricity potential through partnership with Russian and Iranian investors, and is pursuing completion of the Roghun dam - which, if built according to plan, would be the tallest dam in the world. However, the project is a sensitive issue for downstream neighbors and faces large financing shortfalls. In 2016, Tajikistan officially contracted with Italian firm Salini Impregilo to construct the dam over a 13-year period for $3.9 billion.

Recent slowdowns in the Russian and Chinese economies, low commodity prices, and currency fluctuations are hampering economic growth in Tajikistan. By some estimates, the dollar value of remittances from Russia to Tajikistan dropped by more than 65% in 2015. The government faces challenges financing the public debt, which is equivalent to 35% of GDP, and the National Bank of Tajikistan has aggressively spent its reserves to bolster the weakening somoni, leaving little space for fiscal or monetary measures to counter any additional economic shocks.
GDP (purchasing power parity)$27.67 billion (2017 est.)
$26.48 billion (2016 est.)
$24.77 billion (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate)$7.234 billion (2016 est.)
GDP - real growth rate4.5% (2017 est.)
6.9% (2016 est.)
6% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP)$3,100 (2017 est.)
$3,100 (2016 est.)
$2,900 (2015 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving11.7% of GDP (2017 est.)
17.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
12.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
GDP - composition, by end usehousehold consumption: 103.2%
government consumption: 16.8%
investment in fixed capital: 12.3%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 13.4%
imports of goods and services: -48.7% (2017 est.)
GDP - composition by sectoragriculture: 28.6%
industry: 25.5%
services: 45.9% (2017 est.)
Population below poverty line31.5% (2016 est.)
Labor force2.295 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupationagriculture: 43%
industry: 10.6%
services: 46.4% (2016 est.)
Unemployment rate2.4% (2016 est.)
2.5% (2015 est.)
note: official rates; actual unemployment is much higher
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24total: 16.7%
male: 19.2%
female: 13.7% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage sharelowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index32.6 (2006)
34.7 (1998)
Budgetrevenues: $2.214 billion
expenditures: $2.316 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues30.6% of GDP (2017 est.)
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)-1.4% of GDP (2017 est.)
Public debt41.5% of GDP (2017 est.)
43.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices)8.9% (2017 est.)
5.9% (2016 est.)
Central bank discount rate16% (20 March 2017)
6.5% (31 December 2012)
Commercial bank prime lending rate30% (31 December 2017 est.)
25.6% (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of narrow money$936 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.108 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of broad money$1.065 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.3 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of domestic credit$1.301 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$1.711 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares$NA
Agriculture - productscotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Industriesaluminum, cement, vegetable oil
Industrial production growth rate1% (2017 est.)
Current Account Balance-$458 million (2017 est.)
-$265 million (2016 est.)
Exports$794.7 million (2017 est.)
$691.1 million (2016 est.)
Exports - commoditiesaluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
Exports - partnersTurkey 27.8%, Russia 15.6%, China 14.7%, Switzerland 9.8%, Iran 6.5%, Algeria 6.5%, Italy 5.8% (2016)
Imports$2.725 billion (2017 est.)
$2.604 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commoditiespetroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partnersRussia 31.2%, China 13.9%, Kazakhstan 12.8%, Uzbekistan 5.2%, Iran 5.1% (2016)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold$642.4 million (31 December 2017 est.)
$652.8 million (31 December 2016 est.)
Debt - external$5.77 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$5.495 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home$2.272 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad$16.3 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange ratesTajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar -
8.764 (2017 est.)
7.8358 (2016 est.)
7.8358 (2015 est.)
6.1631 (2014 est.)
4.9348 (2013 est.)
Fiscal yearcalendar year

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on January 20, 2018

Economy Comparison