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Romania Geography Profile

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Location
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Geographic coordinates
46 00 N, 25 00 E
Map references
Europe
Area
total: 238,391 sq km
land: 229,891 sq km
water: 8,500 sq km
Area - comparative
twice the size of Pennsylvania; slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries
total: 2,844 km
border countries (5): Bulgaria 605 km, Hungary 424 km, Moldova 683 km, Serbia 531 km, Ukraine 601 km
Coastline
225 km
Maritime claims
territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate
temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Terrain
central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Elevation extremes
mean elevation: 414 m
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
Natural resources
petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land use
agricultural land: 60.7% (2011 est.)
arable land: 39.1% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 1.9% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 19.7% (2011 est.)
forest: 28.7% (2011 est.)
other: 10.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land
31,490 sq km (2012)
Population distribution
urbanization is not particularly high, and a fairly even population distribution can be found throughout most of the country, with urban areas attracting larger and denser populations; Hungarians, the country's largest minority, have a particularly strong presence in eastern Transylvania
Natural hazards
earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
Environment - current issues
soil erosion, degradation, and desertification; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
Environment - international agreements
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note
controls the most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine; the Carpathian Mountains dominate the center of the country, while the Danube River forms much of the southern boundary with Serbia and Bulgaria

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on Friday, November 27, 2020

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