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Nigeria Demographics Profile

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214,028,302 (July 2020 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years: 41.7% (male 45,571,738/female 43,674,769)
15-24 years: 20.27% (male 22,022,660/female 21,358,753)
25-54 years: 30.6% (male 32,808,913/female 32,686,474)
55-64 years: 4.13% (male 4,327,847/female 4,514,264)
65 years and over: 3.3% (male 3,329,083/female 3,733,801) (2020 est.)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 86
youth dependency ratio: 80.9
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1
potential support ratio: 19.6 (2020 est.)
Median age
total: 18.6 years
male: 18.4 years
female: 18.9 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate
2.53% (2020 est.)
Birth rate
34.6 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Death rate
9.1 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
urban population: 52% of total population (2020)
rate of urbanization: 4.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major cities - population
14.368 million Lagos, 3.999 million Kano, 3.552 million Ibadan, 3.278 million ABUJA (capital), 3.020 million Port Harcourt, 1.727 million Benin City (2020)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 102 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth
20.3 years (2013 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Infant mortality rate
total: 59.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 65.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 54 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 60.4 years
male: 58.6 years
female: 62.3 years (2020 est.)
Total fertility rate
4.72 children born/woman (2020 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
16.6% (2018)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
1.3% (2019 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
1.8 million (2019 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
45,000 (2019 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 92.6% of population
rural: 63.6% of population
total: 77.9% of population
unimproved: urban: 7.4% of population
rural: 36.4% of population
total: 22.1% of population (2017 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 80.2% of population
rural: 39.5% of population
total: 59.7% of population
unimproved: urban: 19.8% of population
rural: 60.5% of population
total: 40.3% of population (2017 est.)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact diseases: leptospirosis and schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
aerosolized dust or soil contact diseases: Lassa fever
note: on 7 October 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a Travel Health Notice for a Yellow Fever outbreak in Nigeria; a large, ongoing outbreak of yellow fever in Nigeria began in September 2017; the outbreak is now spread throughout the country with the Nigerian Ministry of Health reporting cases of the disease in all 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory; the CDC recommends travelers going to Nigeria should receive vaccination against yellow fever at least 10 days before travel and should take steps to prevent mosquito bites while there; those never vaccinated against yellow fever should avoid travel to Nigeria during the outbreak
note: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Nigeria; as of 10 November 2020, Nigeria has reported a total of 63,790 cases of COVID-19 or 309 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 1 million population with 6 cumulative deaths per 1 million population; as of 19 March 2020, the Government of Nigeria has restricted entry into Nigeria for travelers from the following high incidence countries: China, Italy, Iran, Norway, South Korea, Spain, Japan, France, Germany, US, UK, Netherlands, and Switzerland
noun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian
Ethnic groups
Hausa 30%, Yoruba 15.5%, Igbo (Ibo) 15.2%, Fulani 6%, Tiv 2.4%, Kanuri/Beriberi 2.4%, Ibibio 1.8%, Ijaw/Izon 1.8%, other 24.7% (2018 est.)
note: Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups
Muslim 53.5%, Roman Catholic 10.6%, other Christian 35.3%, other .6% (2018 est.)
Demographic profile

Nigeria’s population is projected to grow from more than 186 million people in 2016 to 392 million in 2050, becoming the world’s fourth most populous country. Nigeria’s sustained high population growth rate will continue for the foreseeable future because of population momentum and its high birth rate. Abuja has not successfully implemented family planning programs to reduce and space births because of a lack of political will, government financing, and the availability and affordability of services and products, as well as a cultural preference for large families. Increased educational attainment, especially among women, and improvements in health care are needed to encourage and to better enable parents to opt for smaller families.

Nigeria needs to harness the potential of its burgeoning youth population in order to boost economic development, reduce widespread poverty, and channel large numbers of unemployed youth into productive activities and away from ongoing religious and ethnic violence. While most movement of Nigerians is internal, significant emigration regionally and to the West provides an outlet for Nigerians looking for economic opportunities, seeking asylum, and increasingly pursuing higher education. Immigration largely of West Africans continues to be insufficient to offset emigration and the loss of highly skilled workers. Nigeria also is a major source, transit, and destination country for forced labor and sex trafficking.

English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 62%
male: 71.3%
female: 52.7% (2018)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 8 years (2011)
Education expenditures
Maternal mortality rate
917 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
21.8% (2018)
Health expenditures
3.8% (2017)
Physicians density
0.45 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
8.9% (2016)

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on Friday, November 27, 2020

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