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Nigeria Demographics Profile 2019

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203,452,505 (July 2018 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years: 42.45% (male 44,087,799 /female 42,278,742)
15-24 years: 19.81% (male 20,452,045 /female 19,861,371)
25-54 years: 30.44% (male 31,031,253 /female 30,893,168)
55-64 years: 4.04% (male 4,017,658 /female 4,197,739)
65 years and over: 3.26% (male 3,138,206 /female 3,494,524) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 88.2 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 83 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 19.4 (2015 est.)
Median age
total: 18.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 18.1 years
female: 18.6 years
Population growth rate
2.54% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
35.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
urban population: 51.2% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 4.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major cities - population
13.904 million Lagos, 3.906 million Kano, 3.464 million Ibadan, 3.095 million ABUJA (capital), 2.873 million Port Harcourt, 1.676 million Benin City (2019)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth
20.3 years (2013 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Infant mortality rate
total: 63.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 69.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 57.3 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 59.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 57.5 years
female: 61.1 years
Total fertility rate
4.85 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
27.6% (2018)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
1.5% (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
1.9 million (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
53,200 (2017 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 80.8% of population
rural: 57.3% of population
total: 68.5% of population
unimproved: urban: 19.2% of population
rural: 42.7% of population
total: 31.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 32.8% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 25.4% of population (2015 est.)
total: 29% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 67.2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 74.6% of population (2015 est.)
total: 71% of population (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever (2016)
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever (2016)
water contact diseases: leptospirosis and schistosomiasis (2016)
animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis (2016)
aerosolized dust or soil contact diseases: Lassa fever (2016)
note - on 7 October 2019, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a Travel Health Notice for a Yellow Fever outbreak in Nigeria; a large, ongoing outbreak of yellow fever in Nigeria began in September 2017; the outbreak is now spread throughout the country with the Nigerian Ministry of Health reporting cases of the disease in all 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory; the CDC recommends travelers going to Nigeria should receive vaccination against yellow fever at least 10 days before travel and should take steps to prevent mosquito bites while there; those never vaccinated against yellow fever should avoid travel to Nigeria during the outbreak
noun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian
Ethnic groups
Hausa 30%, Yoruba 15.5%, Igbo (Ibo) 15.2%, Fulani 6%, Tiv 2.4%, Kanuri/Beriberi 2.4%, Ibibio 1.8%, Ijaw/Izon 1.8%, other 24.7% (2018 est.)
note: Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups
Muslim 53.5%, Roman Catholic 10.6%, other Christian 35.3%, other .6% (2018 est.)
Demographic profile

Nigeria’s population is projected to grow from more than 186 million people in 2016 to 392 million in 2050, becoming the world’s fourth most populous country. Nigeria’s sustained high population growth rate will continue for the foreseeable future because of population momentum and its high birth rate. Abuja has not successfully implemented family planning programs to reduce and space births because of a lack of political will, government financing, and the availability and affordability of services and products, as well as a cultural preference for large families. Increased educational attainment, especially among women, and improvements in health care are needed to encourage and to better enable parents to opt for smaller families.

Nigeria needs to harness the potential of its burgeoning youth population in order to boost economic development, reduce widespread poverty, and channel large numbers of unemployed youth into productive activities and away from ongoing religious and ethnic violence. While most movement of Nigerians is internal, significant emigration regionally and to the West provides an outlet for Nigerians looking for economic opportunities, seeking asylum, and increasingly pursuing higher education. Immigration largely of West Africans continues to be insufficient to offset emigration and the loss of highly skilled workers. Nigeria also is a major source, transit, and destination country for forced labor and sex trafficking.

English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 59.6%
male: 69.2%
female: 49.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 8 years (2011)
Education expenditures
Maternal mortality rate
917 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
31.5% (2016)
Health expenditures
3.6% (2015)
Physicians density
0.38 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
8.9% (2016)

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on December 7, 2019

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