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Mozambique Demographics Profile 2018

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Population26,573,706
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2017 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 44.72% (male 5,975,407/female 5,908,511)
15-24 years: 21.57% (male 2,824,012/female 2,907,033)
25-54 years: 27.42% (male 3,409,425/female 3,875,837)
55-64 years: 3.4% (male 435,203/female 468,939)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 352,546/female 416,793) (2017 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 93.5
youth dependency ratio: 87.5
elderly dependency ratio: 6.1
potential support ratio: 16.5 (2015 est.)
Median agetotal: 17.2 years
male: 16.6 years
female: 17.8 years (2017 est.)
Population growth rate2.46% (2017 est.)
Birth rate38.1 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Death rate11.6 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Net migration rate-1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.)
Urbanizationurban population: 32.8% of total population (2017)
rate of urbanization: 3.36% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major cities - populationMAPUTO (capital) 1.187 million; Matola 937,000 (2015)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth18.9 years
median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 65.9 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 67.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 63.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 53.7 years
male: 52.9 years
female: 54.5 years (2017 est.)
Total fertility rate5.08 children born/woman (2017 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate11.6% (2011)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate12.3% (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS1.8 million (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths62,000 (2016 est.)
Drinking water sourceimproved:
urban: 80.6% of population
rural: 37% of population
total: 51.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 19.4% of population
rural: 63% of population
total: 48.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility accessimproved:
urban: 42.4% of population
rural: 10.1% of population
total: 20.5% of population
unimproved:
urban: 57.6% of population
rural: 89.9% of population
total: 79.5% of population (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria and dengue fever
water contact disease: schistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies (2016)
Nationalitynoun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican
Ethnic groupsAfrican 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
ReligionsRoman Catholic 28.4%, Muslim 17.9%, Zionist Christian 15.5%, Protestant 12.2% (includes Pentecostal 10.9% and Anglican 1.3%), other 6.7%, none 18.7%, unspecified 0.7% (2007 est.)
Demographic profileMozambique is a poor, sparsely populated country with high fertility and mortality rates and a rapidly growing youthful population – 45% of the population is younger than 15. Mozambique’s high poverty rate is sustained by natural disasters, disease, high population growth, low agricultural productivity, and the unequal distribution of wealth. The country’s birth rate is among the world’s highest, averaging around more than 5 children per woman (and higher in rural areas) for at least the last three decades. The sustained high level of fertility reflects gender inequality, low contraceptive use, early marriages and childbearing, and a lack of education, particularly among women. The high population growth rate is somewhat restrained by the country’s high HIV/AIDS and overall mortality rates. Mozambique ranks among the worst in the world for HIV/AIDS prevalence, HIV/AIDS deaths, and life expectancy at birth.
Mozambique is predominantly a country of emigration, but internal, rural-urban migration has begun to grow. Mozambicans, primarily from the country’s southern region, have been migrating to South Africa for work for more than a century. Additionally, approximately 1.7 million Mozambicans fled to Malawi, South Africa, and other neighboring countries between 1979 and 1992 to escape from civil war. Labor migrants have usually been men from rural areas whose crops have failed or who are unemployed and have headed to South Africa to work as miners; multiple generations of the same family often become miners. Since the abolition of apartheid in South Africa in 1991, other job opportunities have opened to Mozambicans, including in the informal and manufacturing sectors, but mining remains their main source of employment.
LanguagesEmakhuwa 25.3%, Portuguese (official) 10.7%, Xichangana 10.3%, Cisena 7.5%, Elomwe 7%, Echuwabo 5.1%, other Mozambican languages 30.1%, other 0.3%, unspecified 3.7% (2007 est.)
Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 58.8%
male: 73.3%
female: 45.4% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 10 years
male: 10 years
female: 9 years (2014)
Child labor - children ages 5-14total number: 1,369,080
percentage: 22% (2008 est.)
Education expenditures6.5% of GDP (2013)
Maternal mortality rate489 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight15.6% (2011)
Health expenditures7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate7.2% (2016)

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on January 20, 2018

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