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Mongolia Geography Profile 2018

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LocationNorthern Asia, between China and Russia
Geographic coordinates46 00 N, 105 00 E
Map referencesAsia
Areatotal: 1,564,116 sq km
land: 1,553,556 sq km
water: 10,560 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly smaller than Alaska; more than twice the size of Texas
Land boundariestotal: 8,082 km
border countries (2): China 4,630 km, Russia 3,452 km
Coastline0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claimsnone (landlocked)
Climatedesert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)
Terrainvast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,528 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Hoh Nuur 560 m
highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil (Khuiten Peak) 4,374 m
Natural resourcesoil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron
Land useagricultural land: 73%
arable land 0.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 72.6%
forest: 7%
other: 20% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land840 sq km (2012)
Population distributionsparsely distributed population throughout the country; the capital of Ulaanbaatar and the northern city of Darhan support the highest population densities
Natural hazardsdust storms; grassland and forest fires; drought; "zud," which is harsh winter conditions
Environment - current issueslimited natural freshwater resources in some areas; the policies of former Communist regimes promoted rapid urbanization and industrial growth that had negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, and the converting of virgin land to agricultural production increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities had a deleterious effect on the environment
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelandlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on January 20, 2018

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