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Madagascar Geography Profile 2018

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LocationSouthern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique
Geographic coordinates20 00 S, 47 00 E
Map referencesAfrica
Areatotal: 587,041 sq km
land: 581,540 sq km
water: 5,501 sq km
Area - comparativealmost four times the size of Georgia; slightly less than twice the size of Arizona
Land boundaries0 km
Coastline4,828 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m isobath
Climatetropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
Terrainnarrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 615 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m
Natural resourcesgraphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, rare earth elements, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower
Land useagricultural land: 71.1%
arable land 6%; permanent crops 1%; permanent pasture 64.1%
forest: 21.5%
other: 7.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land10,860 sq km (2012)
Population distributionmost of population lives on the eastern half of the island; significant clustering is found in the central highlands and eastern coastline
Natural hazardsperiodic cyclones; drought; and locust infestation
volcanism: Madagascar's volcanoes have not erupted in historical times
Environment - current issuessoil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several endangered species of flora and fauna unique to the island
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - noteworld's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on January 20, 2018