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Lesotho Demographics Profile

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Population2,177,740 (July 2021 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Nationalitynoun: Mosotho (singular), Basotho (plural)

adjective: Basotho
Ethnic groupsSotho 99.7%, Europeans, Asians, and other 0.3%
LanguagesSesotho (official) (southern Sotho), English (official), Zulu, Xhosa
ReligionsProtestant 47.8% (Pentecostal 23.1%, Lesotho Evangelical 17.3%, Anglican 7.4%), Roman Catholic 39.3%, other Christian 9.1%, non-Christian 1.4%, none 2.3% (2014 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 31.3% (male 309,991/female 306,321)

15-24 years: 19.26% (male 181,874/female 197,452)

25-54 years: 38.86% (male 373,323/female 391,901)

55-64 years: 4.98% (male 52,441/female 45,726)

65 years and over: 5.6% (male 57,030/female 53,275) (2020 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 59.2

youth dependency ratio: 51.3

elderly dependency ratio: 7.9

potential support ratio: 12.7 (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 24.7 years

male: 24.7 years

female: 24.7 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate0.73% (2021 est.)
Birth rate23.3 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate11.41 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate-4.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Population distributionrelatively higher population density in the western half of the nation, with the capital of Maseru, and the smaller cities of Mafeteng, Teyateyaneng, and Leribe attracting the most people as shown in this population distribution map
Urbanizationurban population: 29.5% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 2.77% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Major cities - population202,000 MASERU (capital) (2018)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.03 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 0.92 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 1.15 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 1.07 male(s)/female

total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth20.9 years (2014 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-49
Maternal mortality rate544 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 50.23 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 55.92 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 44.37 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 58.9 years

male: 56.82 years

female: 61.04 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate2.95 children born/woman (2021 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate64.9% (2018)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 93% of population

rural: 72.4% of population

total: 78.2% of population

unimproved: urban: 7% of population

rural: 27.6% of population

total: 21.8% of population (2017 est.)
Health expenditures9.3% (2018)
Physicians density0.07 physicians/1,000 population
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 88.6% of population

rural: 52.3% of population

total: 62.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 11.4% of population

rural: 47.7% of population

total: 37.6% of population (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate21.1% (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS280,000 (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths4,700 (2020 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: intermediate (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Obesity - adult prevalence rate16.6% (2016)
Food insecuritysevere localized food insecurity:

due to localized shortfalls in production and loss of income-generating activities -  a slow economic recovery in 2021 will continue to impose constraints on households’ incomes, impinging on their economic capacity to access food; overall, the number of food insecure people is expected to decline from the estimated 582,000 that faced acute food insecurity in the October 2020-March 2021 period; the possibility of a third wave of COVID-19 cases in the country and neighboring South Africa, increases the risk for the enforcement of new containment measures, which could prolong the high levels of unemployment and cause further income losses among the most vulnerable households


Children under the age of 5 years underweight10.5% (2018)
Education expenditures7% of GDP (2018)
Demographic profile

Lesotho faces great socioeconomic challenges. More than half of its population lives below the property line, and the country’s HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is the second highest in the world. In addition, Lesotho is a small, mountainous, landlocked country with little arable land, leaving its population vulnerable to food shortages and reliant on remittances. Lesotho’s persistently high infant, child, and maternal mortality rates have been increasing during the last decade, according to the last two Demographic and Health Surveys. Despite these significant shortcomings, Lesotho has made good progress in education; it is on-track to achieve universal primary education and has one of the highest adult literacy rates in Africa.

Lesotho’s migration history is linked to its unique geography; it is surrounded by South Africa with which it shares linguistic and cultural traits. Lesotho at one time had more of its workforce employed outside its borders than any other country. Today remittances equal about 17% of its GDP. With few job options at home, a high rate of poverty, and higher wages available across the border, labor migration to South Africa replaced agriculture as the prevailing Basotho source of income decades ago. The majority of Basotho migrants were single men contracted to work as gold miners in South Africa. However, migration trends changed in the 1990s, and fewer men found mining jobs in South Africa because of declining gold prices, stricter immigration policies, and a preference for South African workers.

Although men still dominate cross-border labor migration, more women are working in South Africa, mostly as domestics, because they are widows or their husbands are unemployed. Internal rural-urban flows have also become more frequent, with more women migrating within the country to take up jobs in the garment industry or moving to care for loved ones with HIV/AIDS. Lesotho’s small population of immigrants is increasingly composed of Taiwanese and Chinese migrants who are involved in the textile industry and small retail businesses.

Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 79.4%

male: 70.1%

female: 88.3% (2015)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 12 years

male: 12 years

female: 13 years (2017)

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on September 18, 2021

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