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Lebanon Geography Profile 2018

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LocationMiddle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and Syria
Geographic coordinates33 50 N, 35 50 E
Map referencesMiddle East
Areatotal: 10,400 sq km
land: 10,230 sq km
water: 170 sq km
Area - comparativeabout one-third the size of Maryland
Land boundariestotal: 484 km
border countries (2): Israel 81 km, Syria 403 km
Coastline225 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm
ClimateMediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; the Lebanon Mountains experience heavy winter snows
Terrainnarrow coastal plain; El Beqaa (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 1,250 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Qornet es Saouda 3,088 m
Natural resourceslimestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit region, arable land
Land useagricultural land: 63.3%
arable land 11.9%; permanent crops 12.3%; permanent pasture 39.1%
forest: 13.4%
other: 23.3% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land1,040 sq km (2012)
Population distributionthe majority of the people live on or near the Mediterranean coast, and of these most live in and around the capital, Beirut; favorable growing conditions in the Bekaa Valley, on the southeastern side of the Lebanon Mountains, have attracted farmers and thus the area exhibits a smaller population density
Natural hazardsearthquakes; dust storms, sandstorms
Environment - current issuesdeforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Beirut from vehicular traffic and the burning of industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw sewage and oil spills
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - notesmallest country in continental Asia; Nahr el Litani is the only major river in Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicity

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on January 20, 2018

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