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Kenya Demographics Profile 2019

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Population
48,397,527 (July 2018 est.)

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

Age structure
0-14 years: 39.03% (male 9,474,968 /female 9,416,609)
15-24 years: 19.61% (male 4,737,647 /female 4,752,896)
25-54 years: 34.27% (male 8,393,673 /female 8,193,800)
55-64 years: 4% (male 894,371 /female 1,040,883)
65 years and over: 3.08% (male 640,005 /female 852,675) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 78.3 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 73.7 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 4.6 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 21.7 (2015 est.)
Median age
total: 20 years (2018 est.)
male: 19.9 years
female: 20.2 years
Population growth rate
1.57% (2018 est.)
Birth rate
22.6 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate
6.7 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate
-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization
urban population: 27.5% of total population (2019)
rate of urbanization: 4.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major cities - population
4.556 million NAIROBI (capital), 1.254 million Mombassa (2019)
Sex ratio
at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth
20.3 years (2014 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Infant mortality rate
total: 36.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
male: 40.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 31.7 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 64.6 years (2018 est.)
male: 63.1 years
female: 66.1 years
Total fertility rate
2.81 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate
60.5% (2017)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
4.7% (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS
1.6 million (2018 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths
25,000 (2018 est.)
Drinking water source
improved: urban: 81.6% of population
rural: 56.8% of population
total: 63.2% of population
unimproved: urban: 18.4% of population
rural: 43.2% of population
total: 36.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access
improved: urban: 31.2% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 29.7% of population (2015 est.)
total: 30.1% of population (2015 est.)
unimproved: urban: 68.8% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 70.3% of population (2015 est.)
total: 69.9% of population (2015 est.)
Major infectious diseases
degree of risk: very high (2016)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever (2016)
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and Rift Valley fever (2016)
water contact diseases: schistosomiasis (2016)
animal contact diseases: rabies (2016)
Nationality
noun: Kenyan(s)
adjective: Kenyan
Ethnic groups
Kikuyu 17.2%, Luhya 13.8%, Kalejin 12.9%, Luo 10.5%, Kamba 10.1%, Somali 6.2%, Kisii 5.7%, Mijikenda 5.1%, Meru 4.3%, Turkana 2.6%, Masai 2.2%, other 9.4% (2014 est.)
Religions
Christian 83% (Protestant 47.7%, Catholic 23.4%, other Christian 11.9%), Muslim 11.2%, Traditionalists 1.7%, other 1.6%, none 2.4%, unspecified 0.2% (2009 est.)
Demographic profile

Kenya has experienced dramatic population growth since the mid-20th century as a result of its high birth rate and its declining mortality rate. More than 40% of Kenyans are under the age of 15 because of sustained high fertility, early marriage and childbearing, and an unmet need for family planning. Kenya’s persistent rapid population growth strains the labor market, social services, arable land, and natural resources. Although Kenya in 1967 was the first sub-Saharan country to launch a nationwide family planning program, progress in reducing the birth rate has largely stalled since the late 1990s, when the government decreased its support for family planning to focus on the HIV epidemic. Government commitment and international technical support spurred Kenyan contraceptive use, decreasing the fertility rate (children per woman) from about 8 in the late 1970s to less than 5 children twenty years later, but it has plateaued at just over 3 children today.

Kenya is a source of emigrants and a host country for refugees. In the 1960s and 1970s, Kenyans pursued higher education in the UK because of colonial ties, but as British immigration rules tightened, the US, the then Soviet Union, and Canada became attractive study destinations. Kenya’s stagnant economy and political problems during the 1980s and 1990s led to an outpouring of Kenyan students and professionals seeking permanent opportunities in the West and southern Africa. Nevertheless, Kenya’s relative stability since its independence in 1963 has attracted hundreds of thousands of refugees escaping violent conflicts in neighboring countries; Kenya shelters more than 300,000 Somali refugees as of April 2017.

Languages
English (official), Kiswahili (official), numerous indigenous languages
Literacy
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 78%
male: 81.1%
female: 74.9% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 11 years
male: 11 years
female: 11 years (2009)
Education expenditures
5.2% of GDP (2017)
Maternal mortality rate
342 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight
11.2% (2014)
Health expenditures
5.2% (2015)
Physicians density
0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density
1.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate
7.1% (2016)

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on December 7, 2019

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