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Indonesia Demographics Profile

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Population275,122,131 (July 2021 est.)
Nationalitynoun: Indonesian(s)

adjective: Indonesian
Ethnic groupsJavanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)
LanguagesBahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects (of which the most widely spoken is Javanese); note - more than 700 languages are used in Indonesia

major-language sample(s):
Fakta Dunia, sumber informasi dasar yang sangat diperlukan. (Indonesian)

The World Factbook, the indispensable source for basic information.
ReligionsMuslim 87.2%, Protestant 7%, Roman Catholic 2.9%, Hindu 1.7%, other 0.9% (includes Buddhist and Confucian), unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Age structure0-14 years: 23.87% (male 32,473,246/female 31,264,034)

15-24 years: 16.76% (male 22,786,920/female 21,960,130)

25-54 years: 42.56% (male 58,249,570/female 55,409,579)

55-64 years: 8.99% (male 11,033,838/female 12,968,005)

65 years and over: 7.82% (male 9,099,773/female 11,781,271) (2020 est.)
Dependency ratiostotal dependency ratio: 47.5

youth dependency ratio: 38.3

elderly dependency ratio: 9.2

potential support ratio: 10.8 (2020 est.)
Median agetotal: 31.1 years

male: 30.5 years

female: 31.8 years (2020 est.)
Population growth rate0.81% (2021 est.)
Birth rate15.59 births/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Death rate6.74 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Net migration rate-0.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)
Population distributionmajor concentration on the island of Java, which is considered one of the most densely populated places on earth; of the outer islands (those surrounding Java and Bali), Sumatra contains some of the most significant clusters, particularly in the south near the Selat Sunda, and along the northeastern coast near Medan; the cities of Makasar (Sulawesi), Banjarmasin (Kalimantan) are also heavily populated
Urbanizationurban population: 57.3% of total population (2021)

rate of urbanization: 1.99% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
Major cities - population10.915 million JAKARTA (capital), 3.510 million Bekasi, 2.972 million Surabaya, 2.607 million Bandung, 2.397 million Tangerang, 2.368 million Medan (2021)
Sex ratioat birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

25-54 years: 1.05 male(s)/female

55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female

65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female

total population: 1 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth22.4 years (2017 est.)

note: median age at first birth among women 25-49
Maternal mortality rate177 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
Infant mortality ratetotal: 20.16 deaths/1,000 live births

male: 22.59 deaths/1,000 live births

female: 17.6 deaths/1,000 live births (2021 est.)
Life expectancy at birthtotal population: 72.82 years

male: 70.62 years

female: 75.12 years (2021 est.)
Total fertility rate2.04 children born/woman (2021 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate55.5% (2018)
Drinking water sourceimproved: urban: 96.6% of population

rural: 83.7% of population

total: 90.8% of population

unimproved: urban: 3.4% of population

rural: 16.3% of population

total: 9.2% of population (2017 est.)
Health expenditures2.9% (2018)
Physicians density0.43 physicians/1,000 population (2018)
Hospital bed density1 beds/1,000 population (2017)
Sanitation facility accessimproved: urban: 92.5% of population

rural: 76.8% of population

total: 85.4% of population

unimproved: urban: 7.5% of population

rural: 23.2% of population

total: 14.6% of population (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate0.4% (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS540,000 (2020 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths24,000 (2020 est.)
Major infectious diseasesdegree of risk: very high (2020)

food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever

vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria

note: a new coronavirus is causing sustained community spread of respiratory illness (COVID-19) in Indonesia; as of 19 July 2021, Indonesia has reported a total of 2,950,058 cases of COVID-19 or 1,078.54 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 100,000 population with 27.86 cumulative deaths per 100,000 population; as of 19 July 2021, 15.39% of the population has received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine
Obesity - adult prevalence rate6.9% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight17.7% (2018)
Education expenditures3.6% of GDP (2015)
Demographic profile

Indonesia has the world’s fourth-largest population.  It is predominantly Muslim and has the largest Muslim population of any country in the world.  The population is projected to increase to as much as 320 million by 2045.  A government-supported family planning program.  The total fertility rate (TFR) – the average number of births per woman – from 5.6 in the mid-1960s to 2.7 in the mid-1990s.  The success of the program was also due to the social acceptance of family planning, which received backing from influential Muslim leaders and organizations.

The fertility decline slowed in the late 1990’s when responsibility for family planning programs shifted to the district level, where the programs were not prioritized.  Since 2012 the national government revitalized the national family planning program, and Indonesia’s TFR has slowly decreased to 2.3 in 2020.  The government may reach its goal of achieving replacement level fertility – 2.1 children per woman – but the large number of women of childbearing age ensures significant population growth for many years. 

Indonesia is a source country for labor migrants, a transit country for asylum seekers, and a destination mainly for highly skilled migrant workers.  International labor migration, both legal and illegal, from Indonesia to other parts of Asia (most commonly Malaysia) and the Middle East has taken place for decades because of high unemployment and underemployment, poverty, and low wages domestically.  Increasing numbers of migrant workers are drawn to Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the US.  The majority of Indonesian labor migration is temporary and consists predominantly of low-skilled workers, mainly women working as domestics.

Indonesia’s strategic location between Asia and Australia and between the Pacific and Indian Oceans – and its relatively easy accessibility via boat – appeal to asylum seekers.  It is also an attractive transit location because of its easy entry requirements and the ability to continue on to Australia.  Recent asylum seekers have come from Afghanistan, Burma (Rohingyas), Iraq, Somalia, and Sri Lanka.  Since 2013, when Australia tightening its immigration policy, thousands of migrants and asylum seekers have been stranded in Indonesia, where they live in precarious conditions and receive only limited support from international organizations.  The situation for refugees in Indonesia has also worsened because Australia and the US, which had resettled the majority of refugees in Indonesia, have significantly lowered their intake.

Literacydefinition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 95.7%

male: 97.3%

female: 94% (2018)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)total: 14 years

male: 14 years

female: 14 years (2018)

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on September 18, 2021

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