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Finland Geography Profile 2018

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LocationNorthern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia
Geographic coordinates64 00 N, 26 00 E
Map referencesEurope
Areatotal: 338,145 sq km
land: 303,815 sq km
water: 34,330 sq km
Area - comparativeslightly more than two times the size of Georgia; slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundariestotal: 2,563 km
border countries (3): Norway 709 km, Sweden 545 km, Russia 1,309 km
Coastline1,250 km
Maritime claimsterritorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden, Estonia, and Russia
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climatecold temperate; potentially subarctic but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes
Terrainmostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
Elevation extremesmean elevation: 164 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Halti (alternatively Haltia, Haltitunturi, Haltiatunturi) 1,328 m
Natural resourcestimber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone
Land useagricultural land: 7.5%
arable land 7.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0.1%
forest: 72.9%
other: 19.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land690 sq km (2012)
Population distributionthe vast majority of people are found in the south; the northern interior areas remain sparsely poplulated
Natural hazardssevere winters in the north
Environment - current issuesair pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Environment - international agreementsparty to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - notelong boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

Source: CIA World Factbook
This page was last updated on January 20, 2018

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